To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Our work will provide valuable information about the associations between physical symptoms and PTSD in patients from a Spanish-speaking, evidence-based clinic. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: In this reserach study, we want to describe physical symptoms of patients with a preliminary PTSD diagnosis. We also want to explain associations between physical symptoms, and the presence, or absence of PTSD, and to evaluate findings in terms of prevention services, referrals, and alternatives for augmenting treatment-adherence. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This was a descriptive, secondary database analysis of the Center for the Study of Fear and Anxiety (by its Spanish acronym, CETMA). The database included information of the initial evaluation between 2012 and 2019. We aimed to describe sociodemographic and medical variables, and evaluate associations, in terms of the presence or absence of PTSD. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Patients with PTSD were mostly women, single, with a completed bachelor’s degree. The majority had at least one neurological, or musculoskeletal condition. Respiratory conditions were the least represented. We found significant associations between musculoskeletal, neurological, and ear/nose/throat conditions, in terms of PTSD diagnosis. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Puerto Rico recently experienced two hurricanes, several earthquakes, and the pandemic. Findings provide data about the interface between mental and physical symptoms of patients with PTSD. We recommend a randomized population study with mental and physical variables, for understanding possible effects of cumulative stress in Puerto Ricans.
Barriers to research participation by racial and ethnic minority group members are multi-factorial, stem from historical social injustices and occur at participant, research team, and research process levels. The informed consent procedure is a key component of the research process and represents an opportunity to address these barriers. This manuscript describes the development of the Strengthening Translational Research in Diverse Enrollment (STRIDE) intervention, which aims to improve research participation by individuals from underrepresented groups.
We used a community-engaged approach to develop an integrated, culturally, and literacy-sensitive, multi-component intervention that addresses barriers to research participation during the informed consent process. This approach involved having Community Investigators participate in intervention development activities and using community engagement studios and other methods to get feedback from community members on intervention components.
The STRIDE intervention has three components: a simulation-based training program directed toward clinical study research assistants that emphasizes cultural competency and communication skills for assisting in the informed consent process, an electronic consent (eConsent) framework designed to improve health-related research material comprehension and relevance, and a “storytelling” intervention in which prior research participants from diverse backgrounds share their experiences delivered via video vignettes during the consent process.
The community engaged development approach resulted in a multi-component intervention that addresses known barriers to research participation and can be integrated into the consent process of research studies. Results of an ongoing study will determine its effectiveness at increasing diversity among research participants.
We study the stability of the differential process of Rochberg and Weiss associated with an analytic family of Banach spaces obtained using the complex interpolation method for families. In the context of Köthe function spaces, we complete earlier results of Kalton (who showed that there is global bounded stability for pairs of Köthe spaces) by showing that there is global (bounded) stability for families of up to three Köthe spaces distributed in arcs on the unit circle while there is no (bounded) stability for families of four or more Köthe spaces. In the context of arbitrary pairs of Banach spaces, we present some local stability results and some global isometric stability results.
Mental health disorders and their treatments produce significant costs and benefits in both healthcare and non-healthcare sectors. The latter are often referred to as intersectoral costs and benefits (ICBs). Little is known about healthcare-related ICBs in the criminal justice sector and how to include these in health economics research.
The triple aim of this study is (i) to identify healthcare-related ICBs in the criminal justice sector, (ii) to validate the list of healthcare-related ICBs in the criminal justice sector on a European level by sector-specific experts, and (iii) to classify the identified ICBs.
A scientific literature search in PubMed and an additional grey literature search, carried out in six European countries, were used to retrieve ICBs. In order to validate the international applicability of the ICBs, a survey was conducted with an international group of experts from the criminal justice sector. The list of criminal justice ICBs was categorized according to the PECUNIA conceptual framework.
The full-text analysis of forty-five peer-reviewed journal articles and eleven grey literature sources resulted in a draft list of items. Input from the expert survey resulted in a final list of fourteen unique criminal justice ICBs, categorized according to the care atom.
This study laid further foundations for the inclusion of important societal costs of mental health-related interventions within the criminal justice sector. More research is needed to facilitate the further and increased inclusion of ICBs in health economics research.
The updated common rule, for human subjects research, requires that consents “begin with a ‘concise and focused’ presentation of the key information that will most likely help someone make a decision about whether to participate in a study” (Menikoff, Kaneshiro, Pritchard. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2017; 376(7): 613–615.). We utilized a community-engaged technology development approach to inform feature options within the REDCap software platform centered around collection and storage of electronic consent (eConsent) to address issues of transparency, clinical trial efficiency, and regulatory compliance for informed consent (Harris, et al. Journal of Biomedical Informatics 2009; 42(2): 377–381.). eConsent may also improve recruitment and retention in clinical research studies by addressing: (1) barriers for accessing rural populations by facilitating remote consent and (2) cultural and literacy barriers by including optional explanatory material (e.g., defining terms by hovering over them with the cursor) or the choice of displaying different videos/images based on participant’s race, ethnicity, or educational level (Phillippi, et al. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing. 2018; 47(4): 529–534.).
We developed and pilot tested our eConsent framework to provide a personalized consent experience whereby users are guided through a consent document that utilizes avatars, contextual glossary information supplements, and videos, to facilitate communication of information.
The eConsent framework includes a portfolio of eight features, reviewed by community stakeholders, and tested at two academic medical centers.
Early adoption and utilization of this eConsent framework have demonstrated acceptability. Next steps will emphasize testing efficacy of features to improve participant engagement with the consent process.
Despite an increasing focus on cognitive functions in eating disorders, only limited and contradictory knowledge regarding the relationship between cognitive functions and anorexia nervosa symptomatology currently exist.
The aim of this study was to investigate potential associations between cognitive functions and anorexia nervosa symptomatology in children and adolescents.
Eating disorder symptoms and cognitive functions were examined in this cross-sectional, multi-centre study. Diagnostic scores i.e. BMI, psychological symptoms, and global EDE-16 were stratified on cognitive function. Children and adolescents suffering from severe recent-onset anorexia nervosa (n = 94) and healthy controls (n = 94), between the age 10.6 and 17.9 years (mean age 14.9 years, SD 1.8), participated in the study. The patients were divided into two groups, respectively above and below the median of cognitive functions.
The study findings revealed that Global EDE score significantly increased with age (P = 0.002, CI 0.08–0.36). Besides this, no significant associations between low body weight or psychological symptoms and cognitive functions were found. However, a large variability in cognitive functions was found on all measure in patients with anorexia nervosa than healthy controls.
While age seems to be significantly correlated to symptom burden the study results indicate that patients with anorexia nervosa is a much more heterogeneous group with regard to cognition than healthy controls. However, cognitive functions and anorexia nervosa symptomatology does not appear to be associated.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Between 2010 and 2019 the international health care organization Partners In Health (PIH) and its sister organization Zanmi Lasante (ZL) mounted a long-term response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake, focused on mental health. Over that time, implementing a Theory of Change developed in 2012, the organization successfully developed a comprehensive, sustained community mental health system in Haiti's Central Plateau and Artibonite departments, directly serving a catchment area of 1.5 million people through multiple diagnosis-specific care pathways. The resulting ZL mental health system delivered 28 184 patient visits and served 6305 discrete patients at ZL facilities between January 2016 and September 2019. The experience of developing a system of mental health services in Haiti that currently provides ongoing care to thousands of people serves as a case study in major challenges involved in global mental health delivery. The essential components of the effort to develop and sustain this community mental health system are summarized.
A Lagrangian study was conducted in a eutrophic estuary (Guanabara Bay, Brazil) to investigate in situ plankton trophodynamics under the influence of the cold, nutrient-rich South Atlantic Coastal Water in a short-term temporal variability (scale of hours). We tested the hypothesis that the base of the plankton food web is composed of small cells and that microzooplankton is the main consumer of this assemblage. Samples of pico-, nano- and microplankton, as well as copepods, were collected during spring, when the entry of upwelling water in the Bay is commonly observed, and near the surface every 3 h during the 1-day sampling period. Potential predation of dinoflagellates, ciliates, copepod nauplii, copepodites and adult copepods was estimated based on predator-prey size relationships. The main trophic links in the Guanabara Bay food web for the period analysed were nanophytoplankton-copepods, nanophytoplankton-ciliates, and autotrophic dinoflagellates-heterotrophic dinoflagellates. According to microphytoplankton availability, adult copepods could not satisfy their food requirement, and nanophytoplankton represented an important supplementary food source. In fact, diel variations of nano- and microplankton biomass were opposite to that of copepods suggesting predation control by the latter on the former. The trophodynamics of Guanabara Bay, under the influence of upwelling water, resulted in marked differences from other eutrophic estuaries around the world.
A good understanding of the spent fuel matrix (UO2) behavior under predisposal activities conditions is required for the proper performance assessment of a final repository. Hence, the oxidation evolution of UO2 under dry interim storage conditions, as a main predisposal action within the Spanish strategy, needs to be addressed. For this aim, in this work a detailed in situ Raman spectroscopy study of the surface oxidation of a UO2.00 disk heated in the presence of synthetic air at 573 K is presented. The spectra analysis required two previous studies. In the first one, UO2+x powder samples with controlled degree of non-stoichiometry were identified by thermogravimetric analysis and subsequently characterized by Raman spectroscopy. The equations obtained from this study enable estimating the oxidation degree of any UO2+x sample (for x < 0.20) at atmospheric conditions. The second one was performed in order to use these equations for the in situ experiments (at 573 K), since the shift of the bands due to temperature needs to be taken into account. Thus, the behavior of the Raman spectra as a function of temperature was analyzed and a correction term thereafter introduced in the initial equations.
An estimated 800 million people live within 100 km of an active volcano in 86 countries and additional overseas territories worldwide [see Chapter 4 and Appendix B]1. Volcanoes are compelling evidence that the Earth is a dynamic planet characterised by endless change and renewal. Humans have always found volcanic activity fascinating and have often chosen to live close to volcanoes, which commonly provide favourable environments for life. Volcanoes bring many benefits to society: eruptions fertilise soils; elevated topography provides good sites for infrastructure (e.g. telecommunications on elevated ground); water resources are commonly plentiful; volcano tourism can be lucrative; and volcanoes can acquire spiritual, aesthetic or religious significance. Some volcanoes are also associated with geothermal resources, making them a target for exploration and a potential energy resource.
Much of the time volcanoes are not a threat because they erupt very infrequently or because communities have become resilient to frequently erupting volcanoes. However, there is an everpresent danger of a long-dormant volcano re-awakening or of volcanoes producing anomalously large or unexpected eruptions. Volcanic eruptions can cause loss of life and livelihoods in exposed communities, damage or disrupt critical infrastructure and add stress to already fragile environments. Their impacts can be both short-term, e.g. physical damage, and long-term, e.g. sustained or permanent displacement of populations. The risk from volcanic eruptions and their attendant hazards is often underestimated beyond areas within the immediate proximity of a volcano. For example, volcanic ash hazards can have effects hundreds of kilometres away from the vent and have an adverse impact on human and animal health, infrastructure, transport, agriculture and horticulture, the environment and economies. The products of volcanism and their impacts can extend beyond country borders, to be regional and even global in scale.
Although known historical loss of life from volcanic eruptions (since 1600 AD about 280,000 fatalities are recorded, Auker et al. (2013)) is modest compared to other major natural hazards, volcanic eruptions can be catastrophic for exposed communities. In 1985 the town of Armero in Colombia was buried by lahars (volcanic mudflows) with more than 21,000 fatalities due to relatively small explosive eruptions at the summit of Nevado del Ruiz volcano that partially melted a glacier (Voight, 1990).
The biocompatibility of an implant material depends on the bulk physical properties in addition to the surface properties. In biomedical engineering and industry Ti and Ti-alloys are very popular biological implant material for their bulk physical properties and strength to weight ratio resembling those of nature bone. It is possible to modify the surface properties of titanium for enhanced surface biocompatibility. The main objective of the this study is to engineer a smart Ti-based prosthesis surface by self induced chemically modified titanium oxide nano-film by the chemical mechanical polishing process (CMP). This new process applied on bio-implants aims at significantly reducing the out-diffusion of Ti and other metallic impurities from prosthesis in contact with body fluids and tissue and simultaneously enhancing the surface mechanical, chemical and biological properties. CMP technique enables the growth of a thicker and denser self-protective native oxide on Ti and Ti alloy samples, while simultaneously inducing a controlled surface roughness. It is demonstrated that the Ti based dental implants with self-protective oxide induced surfaces help minimize chemical and bacterial reactivity in addition to Ti ion dissolution while promoting their biocompatibility through surface patterning. The studied self-protective oxide films can also be utilized for many additional applications including bio-sensors.
Results from the successful growth of high quality KH2PO4 (KDP) crystals with incorporated TiO2 anatase nanoparticles and the characterization of these crystals using several complementary methods are presented. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy have shown that the anatase nanoparticles were captured mainly by the pyramidal growth sector and, to a considerably lesser extent, by the prismatic growth sector. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis confirms that the growth layer stacks contain the TiO2 particles. Significant variation in the imaginary and real parts of the cubic nonlinear optical susceptibilities and refractive index changes at continuous wave excitation were found in prism and pyramid parts of pure KDP and KDP:TiO2 samples. The identified lines of electron paramagnetic resonance belong to four different centers FeA3+, FeB3+, CrR3+ and CrGB3+. From analysis of line intensities it was concluded that the concentration of non-controlled impurities in nominally pure KDP samples is several times larger than in KDP:TiO2, and that the concentration of non-controlled impurities in the prismatic part of the KDP:TiO2 boule is larger than in the pyramidal part.
The President of C12, Alexander Kosovichev, presented the status of the Commission and its working Group(s). Primary activities included organization of international meetings (IAU Symposia, Special Sessions and Joint Discussion); review and support of proposals for IAU sponsored meetings; organization of working groups on the Commission topics to promote the international cooperation; preparation of triennial report on the organizational and science activities of Commission members. Commission 12 broadly encompasses topics of solar research which include studies of the Sun's internal structure, composition, dynamics and magnetism (through helioseismology and other techniques), studies of the quiet photosphere, chromosphere and corona, and also research of the mechanisms of solar radiation, and its variability on various time scales. Some overlap with topics covered by Commission 10 Solar Activity is unavoidable, and many activities are sponsored jointly by these two commissions. The Commission website can be found at http://sun.stanford.edu/IAU-Com12/, with information about related IAU Symposiums and activities, and links to appropriate web sites.
Linear stability analysis and direct numerical simulations are conducted to analyse mixed convection in a liquid metal flow in a horizontal pipe with imposed transverse magnetic field. The pipe walls are electrically insulated and subject to constant flux heating in the lower half. The results reveal the nature of anomalous temperature fluctuations detected in earlier experiments. It is found that, at the magnetic field strength far exceeding the laminarization threshold, the natural convection develops in the form of coherent quasi-two-dimensional rolls aligned with the magnetic field. Transport of the rolls by the mean flow causes high-amplitude, low-frequency fluctuations of temperature.