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This report is on the synthesis by electrospinning of multiferroic core-shell nanofibers of strontium hexaferrite and lead zirconate titanate or barium titanate and studies on magneto-electric (ME) coupling. Fibers with well-defined core–shell structures showed the order parameters in agreement with values for nanostructures. The strength of ME coupling measured by the magnetic field-induced polarization showed the fractional change in the remnant polarization as high as 21%. The ME voltage coefficient in H-assembled films showed the strong ME response for the zero magnetic bias field. Follow-up studies and potential avenues for enhancing the strength of ME coupling in the core–shell nanofibers are discussed.
Prenatal maternal depression predicts disturbances in stress responses and an increased risk of psychopathology in offspring. However the foetal origins of these programming influences on the offspring's stress response mechanism are unclear. Furthermore, there are no inquiries into this issue from the developing world, where high rates of prenatal depression (25-45%) are reported.
To explore associations between prenatal depression and, foetal and infant responsivity, in a sample from rural South India.
67 pregnant women in their third trimester with high prenatal depression scores and 66 controls were assessed for their foetus’ responsivity to repeated vibroacoustic stimulation by measuring foetal heart rate responses. At 1.5-3 months postbirth, infant cortisol responses to immunisation and infant temperament were measured.
A curvilinear relationship existed between prenatal depression and foetal responsivity to a potential stressor (R2=0.98, p=0.02). Foetuses of mothers with both very high and very low levels of depression showed elevated responses compared to the foetuses of mothers with moderate levels of depression.
Prenatal depression predicted elevated infant cortisol responsivity independent of postnatal depression and other confounders (B=13.08, p=0.02). Quintile analysis revealed this relationship to be U shaped (R2=0.20, p=0.02), similar to the relationship between prenatal depression and foetal responsivity.
There were no associations between prenatal depression and difficult infant temperament.
The findings provide the first evidence of a curvilinear relationship between prenatal depression and offspring stress responsivity from the developing world suggesting that intra-uterine exposure to moderate stress levels may be beneficial in the context of socio-economic disadvantage.
Pott's puffy tumour is a rare complication of sinusitis. This osteomyelitis can affect the outer and inner tables of the frontal sinus. The treatment of Pott's puffy tumour combines medical and surgical approaches. Surgical approaches have traditionally been open, but endoscopic techniques have been adopted recently in select cases. The bony defect from debridement can be left alone, or closed with autografts or allografts.
To describe a technique for the reconstruction of a large skull vault after the debridement of extensive osteomyelitis of the anterior cranial vault.
Modified distraction osteogenesis is used in the cranial vault, to induce new bone formation. This is customarily used to lengthen long bones. The advantages of this technique include avoiding autologous grafts or alloplastic cranioplasty in the infected surgical bed, and allowing primary closure.
Early post-operative imaging results have been encouraging, with no reported complications.
Modified distraction osteogenesis is a novel technique in the primary reconstruction of calvarial bone.
Antibiotics are widely used by all specialties in the hospital setting. We evaluated previously defined high-risk antibiotic use in relation to Clostridioides difficile infections (CDIs).
We analyzed 2016–2017 data from 171 hospitals. High-risk antibiotics included second-, third-, and fourth-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, carbapenems, and lincosamides. A CDI case was a positive stool C. difficile toxin or molecular assay result from a patient without a positive result in the previous 8 weeks. Hospital-associated (HA) CDI cases included specimens collected >3 calendar days after admission or ≤3 calendar days from a patient with a prior same-hospital discharge within 28 days. We used the multivariable Poisson regression model to estimate the relative risk (RR) of high-risk antibiotic use on HA CDI, controlling for confounders.
The median days of therapy for high-risk antibiotic use was 241.2 (interquartile range [IQR], 192.6–295.2) per 1,000 days present; the overall HA CDI rate was 33 (IQR, 24–43) per 10,000 admissions. The overall correlation of high-risk antibiotic use and HA CDI was 0.22 (P = .003), and higher correlation was observed in teaching hospitals (0.38; P = .002). For every 100-day (per 1,000 days present) increase in high-risk antibiotic therapy, there was a 12% increase in HA CDI (RR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.04–1.21; P = .002) after adjusting for confounders.
High-risk antibiotic use is an independent predictor of HA CDI. This assessment of poststewardship implementation in the United States highlights the importance of tracking trends of antimicrobial use over time as it relates to CDI.
This article extends the research focusing on the early origins of psychopathology into the prenatal period, by exploring the association between maternal prenatal depression and offspring (fetal and infant) neurobehavior. The sample is recruited from a rural population in South India where women in the third trimester of pregnancy were assessed for depression and the heart rate responses of their fetuses to extrinsically applied vibroacoustic stimuli were studied. At 2 months postbirth, infant temperament and cortisol responsivity to immunization were assessed. The association between maternal prenatal depression and fetal responsivity to vibroacoustic stimulation, and infant responsivity to immunization, was U shaped with higher levels of responsivity noted in the offspring of mothers with very high and very low depression scores, and lower levels noted in the offspring of mothers with moderate depression scores. Maternal prenatal depression was not associated with infant temperament. The findings highlight the importance of environmental influences in the developmental origins of neurobehavior, suggesting that such differences, not evident at baseline, may emerge upon exposure to stressors. The study also emphasizes the need for further investigation in low- and middle-income contexts by providing preliminary evidence of the differing patterns of association observed between high- and low-income populations.
We derive azimuthally-averaged surface-brightness profiles of 16 AGB stars in the far-IR and sub-mm with the aim of studying the resolved historic mass loss in the extended circumstellar envelope. The PSF-subtracted extended component fluxes were found to be ∼40% of the total source flux. By fitting SEDs at each radial point we derive the dust temperature, column density and spectral index of emissivity via Bayesian inference. The measured dust-to-gas ratios were somewhat consistent with canonical values however with a large scatter.
Ferromagnetic/Ferroelectric/Ferromagnetic (Ni/PZT/Ni) tri-layer artificial multiferroelectric structures in spin capacitor configuration were fabricated by sputtering ferromagnetic electrodes on PZT. Magnetocapacitance, magnetoimpedance, and phase angle measurements were carried out by a wide range of frequencies and magnetic fields at room temperature. We also compared the magnetodielectric measurements with Ni/PZT/Ag and Ag/PZT/Ag tri-layers structures. Ni/PZT/Ni spin capacitor shows a significantly different behavior compared to conventional PZT capacitor with Ag electrode and mixed electrode capacitor with one ferromagnetic and one conventional electrode.
We analyze the dust emission features seen in Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra of red supergiant (RSG) and oxygen-rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud and Small Magellanic Cloud galaxies and in various Milky Way globular clusters. The spectra come from the Spitzer Legacy program SAGE-Spectroscopy (PI: F. Kemper), the Spitzer program SMC-Spec (PI: G. Sloan), and other archival Spitzer-IRS programs. The broad 10 and 20 micron emission features attributed to amorphous dust of silicate composition seen in the spectra show evidence for systematic differences in the centroid of both emission features between O-rich AGB and RSG populations. Radiative transfer modeling using the GRAMS grid of models of AGB and RSG stars suggests that the centroid differences are due to differences in dust properties. We investigate differences in dust composition, size, shape, etc that might be responsible for these spectral differences. We explore how these differences may arise from the different circumstellar environments around RSG and O-rich AGB stars and assess effects of varying metallicity (LMC versus SMC versus Milky Way globular cluster) and other properties (mass-loss rate, luminosity, etc.) on the dust originating from these stars. BAS acknowledges funding from NASA ADAP grant NNX13AD54G.
Maternal stress during pregnancy has pervasive effects on stress responsivity in children. This study is the first to test the hypothesis that maternal prenatal depression, as observed in South India, may be associated with how foetuses respond to a potentially stressful stimulus. We employed measures of foetal heart rate at baseline, during exposure to a vibroacoustic stimulus, and post-stimulation, to study patterns of response and recovery in 133 third trimester foetuses of depressed and non-depressed mothers. We show that the association between maternal depression and foetal stress responsivity is U-shaped with foetuses of mothers with high and low depression scores demonstrating elevated responses, and poorer recovery, than foetuses of mothers with moderate levels. The right amount of intra-uterine stimulation is important in conditioning foetuses towards optimal regulation of their stress response. Our results imply that, in certain environmental contexts, exposure to moderate amounts of intra-uterine stress may facilitate this process.
Active surveillance to identify asymptomatic carriers of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) is a recommended strategy for CRE control in healthcare facilities. Active surveillance using stool specimens tested for Clostridium difficile is a relatively low-cost strategy to detect CRE carriers. Further evaluation of this and other risk factor-based active surveillance strategies is warranted.
Hybrid silicon laser is a promising solution to enable high-performance light source on large-scale, silicon-based photonic integrated circuits (PICs). As a compact laser cavity design, hybrid microring lasers are attractive for their intrinsic advantages of small footprint, low power consumption and flexibility in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), etc. Here we review recent progress in unidirectional microring lasers and device thermal management. Unidirectional emission is achieved by integrating a passive reflector that feeds laser emission back into laser cavity to introduce extra unidirectional gain. Up to 4X of device heating reduction is simulated by adding a metal thermal shunt to the laser to “short” heat to the silicon substrate through buried oxide layer (BOX) in the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate. Obvious device heating reduction is also observed in experiment.
A study is made of the rotation field in wedge indentation of metals using copper as the model material system. Wedges with apical angles of 60° and 120° are used to indent annealed copper, and the deformation is mapped using image correlation. The indentation of annealed and strain-hardened copper is simulated using finite element analysis. The rotation field, derived from the deformation measurements, provides a clear way of distinguishing between cutting and compressive modes of deformation. Largely unidirectional rotation on one side of the symmetry line with small spatial rotation gradients is characteristic of compression. Bidirectional rotation with neighboring regions of opposing rotations and locally high rotation gradients characterizes cutting. In addition, the rotation demarcates such characteristic regions as the pile-up zone in indentation of a strain-hardened metal. The residual rotation field obtained after unloading is essentially the same as that at full load, indicating that it is a scalar proxy for plastic deformation as a whole.
Finger millet (Eleusine coracana) is extensively cultivated and consumed in India and Africa. The millet seed coat is a rich source of dietary fibre and phenolic compounds. The effect of feeding a diet containing 20 % finger millet seed coat matter (SCM) was examined in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetic rats maintained on the millet SCM diet (diabetic experimental (DE) group) for 6 weeks exhibited a lesser degree of fasting hyperglycaemia and partial reversal of abnormalities in serum albumin, urea and creatinine compared with the diabetic control (DC) group. The DE group of rats excreted comparatively lesser amounts of glucose, protein, urea and creatinine and was accompanied by improved body weights compared with their corresponding controls. Hypercholesterolaemia and hypertriacylglycerolaemia associated with diabetes were also notably reversed in the DE group. Slit lamp examination of the eye lens revealed an immature subcapsular cataract with mild lenticular opacity in the DE group of rats compared to the mature cataract with significant lenticular opacity and corneal vascularisation in the DC group. Lower activity of lens aldose reductase, serum advanced glycation end products and blood glycosylated Hb levels were observed in the DE group. The millet SCM feeding showed pronounced ameliorating effects on kidney pathology as reflected by near normal glomerular and tubular structures and lower glomerular filtration rate compared with the shrunken glomerulus, tubular vacuolations in the DC group. Thus, the present animal study evidenced the hypoglycaemic, hypocholesterolaemic, nephroprotective and anti-cataractogenic properties of finger millet SCM, suggesting its utility as a functional ingredient in diets for diabetics.
The beneficial influences of xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) obtained from alkali-pretreated corncob and fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) obtained from cane sugar were evaluated in experimental diabetes. These oligosaccharides were supplemented at 10 % (w/w) in the basal diet of streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats, while the control rats were fed with a basal diet for a period of 6 weeks. Both the oligosaccharides exerted favourable influences in diabetic rats by significantly improving body weight and reducing hyperglycaemia and cholesterol. The characteristic diabetic complications such as severe glucosuria, proteinuria and advanced glycation end products in renal tissue, diabetic nephropathy, and blood creatinine and urea concentrations were notably reduced. Besides, these oligosaccharide supplementations significantly increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes – catalase and glutathione reductase – in the blood of diabetic rats. Supplementation of XOS and FOS resulted in a significant increase in the bifidobacteria and lactobacilli population in the caecum. The present study indicates that XOS and FOS have an ameliorating influence on metabolic abnormalities associated with diabetes, besides conferring an optimal milieu of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, thus suggesting their potential health benefit in diabetics.
Multiferroic composite thin films consisting of PbNb0.02Zr0.2Ti0.8O3 (PNZT) and La0.7 Sr0.3 MnO3 (LSMO) were deposited on SiO2/Si substrates. SiO2 films were deposited by pulsed electron deposition and LSMO and PNZT films were prepared using chemical solution deposition process using a metal organic deposition route. Individual films and the test structure PNZT/LSMO/ SiO2/Si were characterized using various characterizing techniques. Preliminary results of magnetic field dependent capacitance (magneto-capacitance) on the test structure are reported. A change in capacitance from 18.92 pf to 5.49 pf is observed as frequency changes from 50 KHz to 1 MHz, when no external magnetic field is applied. When a magnetic field of 330 Oe (positive or negative) is applied, the change in magneto-capacitance is appreciable, with a maximum change of 37 % being observed at a frequency of 1 MHz.
Search for novel multi-functional materials, especially multiferroics, which are ferromagnetic above room temperature and at the same time exhibit a ferroelectric behavior much above room temperature, is an active topic of extensive studies today. Ability to address an entity with an external field, laser beam, and also electric potential is a welcome challenge to develop multifunctional devices enabled by nanoscience. While most of the studies to date have been on various forms of Bi- and Ba based Ferrites, rare earth chromites are a new class of materials which appear to show some promise. However in the powder and bulk form these materials are at best canted antiferromagnetics with the magnetic transition temperatures much below room temperature. In this presentation we show that thin films of YbCrO3 deposited by Pulsed Laser Deposition exhibit robust ferromagnetic properties above room temperature. It is indeed a welcome surprise and a challenge to understand the evolution of above room temperature ferromagnetism in such a thin film. The thin films are amorphous in contrast to the powder and bulk forms which are crystalline. The magnetic properties are those of a soft magnet with low coercivity. We present extensive investigations of the magnetic and ferroelectric properties, and spectroscopic studies using XAS techniques to understand the electronic states of the constituent atoms in this novel Chromite. While the amorphous films are ferromagnetic much above room temperature, we show that any observation of ferroelectric property in these films is an artifact of a leaky highly resistive material.
We clarify here certain aspects of the magnetic field (H) – temperature (T) phase diagram of YbMnO3, a hexagonal Rare-Earth manganite oxide in which two multiferroic ordered states – ferroelectricity and antiferromagnetism coexist at low temperature. Single crystals of YbMnO3 were carefully grown from a Floating Zone (FZ) at low speed, then oriented and studied at variable temperature and magnetic field. Magnetization and heat capacity measurement show features corresponding to the antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering of Mn3+, and the rare earth Yb3+. We find that the ordering temperature of Mn3+ is independent of applied magnetic field up to 5T. However, contrary to previous reports in flux-grown crystals, we do not observe a complete suppression of Yb3+ order above 0.1T. Instead, we find that Yb3+ remains at least up to 1 T, suggesting a revision of our current understanding of the ordering mechanism of the Mn-Yb and Yb –Yb sub-lattices in this hexagonal structure.