The objectives of this study were to evaluate the contamination by eggs of Toxocara in sandy areas or grass lawns of outdoor recreation areas that are used by children, and the frequency of seroprevalence in children, from three cities of fewer than 45,000 inhabitants in Paraná, Brazil. From May 2005 to December 2007, five samples were taken from each of 13 sandy sites and 18 grass lawns, all from plazas and public schools. Blood samples from children aged 0–12 years were analysed by immunoassay for anti-Toxocara IgG. The soil samples were processed by floatation and sedimentation. Eggs of Toxocara spp. were present in 44.7% (38/85) of the samples from grassed areas and in 21.4% (15/70) of the sand samples. The lawns were 2.16 times more contaminated than the sand (P = 0.0009). However, the epidemiological variables showed no statistically significant difference between seropositive (36.8%; 130/353), and seronegative children. The rate of seropositivity was higher in children aged 0–5 years (P = 0.03), who were 1.94 times more likely to develop persistent wheezing (P = 0.02).