We have been developing X-ray calorimeters that have high spectral resolution and high quantum efficiency. For an X-ray calorimeter working at 0.1 K, the energy resolution ideally can be as good as one eV for a practical detector. A detector with a resolution of 17 eV FWHM at 6 keV has been constructed. We expect to be able to improve this by a factor of two or more. With X-ray calorimeters flown on a sounding rocket, we should be able to observe soft X-ray line emission from the interstellar medium over the energy range 0.07 to 1 keV. Here we present a preliminary design for an X-ray calorimeter rocket experiment and the spectrum which might be observed from an equilibrium plasma. For later X-ray calorimeter sounding rocket experiments, we plan to add an aluminum foil mirror with collecting area of about 400 cm2 to observe line features from bright supernova remnants.