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Roxbyite (Cu1.74–1.82S), a new mineral, was isolated from drill core from the Olympic Dam deposit, from copper flotation concentrates from the Olympic Dam pilot plant, and from reaction residues obtained by treating certain concentrates with sulphuric acid. Powder X-ray diffraction data and the composition of the mineral are similar to results reported previously for the unnamed mineral of composition Cu1.83S (with a trace of iron) from the El Teniente deposit in Chile, and to copper sulphides of composition CuxS, 1.75 ⩽ x ⩽ 1.86, prepared electrochemically by several workers. A Weissenberg single-crystal study shows roxbyite to be monoclinic with a = 53.79, b = 30.90, c = 13.36Å, β = 90.0° and space group alternatives C2/m, Cm or C2. Some iron in the structure may stabilize the mineral.
Antarctic and Southern Ocean science is vital to understanding natural variability, the processes that govern global change and the role of humans in the Earth and climate system. The potential for new knowledge to be gained from future Antarctic science is substantial. Therefore, the international Antarctic community came together to ‘scan the horizon’ to identify the highest priority scientific questions that researchers should aspire to answer in the next two decades and beyond. Wide consultation was a fundamental principle for the development of a collective, international view of the most important future directions in Antarctic science. From the many possibilities, the horizon scan identified 80 key scientific questions through structured debate, discussion, revision and voting. Questions were clustered into seven topics: i) Antarctic atmosphere and global connections, ii) Southern Ocean and sea ice in a warming world, iii) ice sheet and sea level, iv) the dynamic Earth, v) life on the precipice, vi) near-Earth space and beyond, and vii) human presence in Antarctica. Answering the questions identified by the horizon scan will require innovative experimental designs, novel applications of technology, invention of next-generation field and laboratory approaches, and expanded observing systems and networks. Unbiased, non-contaminating procedures will be required to retrieve the requisite air, biota, sediment, rock, ice and water samples. Sustained year-round access to Antarctica and the Southern Ocean will be essential to increase winter-time measurements. Improved models are needed that represent Antarctica and the Southern Ocean in the Earth System, and provide predictions at spatial and temporal resolutions useful for decision making. A co-ordinated portfolio of cross-disciplinary science, based on new models of international collaboration, will be essential as no scientist, programme or nation can realize these aspirations alone.
A brief description is given of the Skylab ten color photoelectric photometer and the programs of measurements made during Skylab missions SL-2 and SL-3. Results obtained on the polarized brightness of zodiacal light at five points on the antisolar hemisphere are discussed and compared with other published data for the north celestial pole, south ecliptic pole, at elongation 90 degrees on the ecliptic, and at two places near the north galactic pole.
Sky maps made by the Pioneer 10 Imaging Photopolarimeter (IPP) at sun-spacecraft distances from 1 to 3 AU have been analyzed to derive the brightness of the zodiacal light near the ecliptic at elongations greater than 90 degrees. The change in zodiacal light brightness with heliocentric distance is compared with models of the spatial distribution of the dust. Use of background starlight brightnesses derived from IPP measurements beyond the asteroid belt, where the zodiacal light is not detected, and, especially, use of a corrected calibration lead to considerably lower values for zodiacal light than those reported by us previously.
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