In the present paper, we will review our work on rare-earth doped Si nanoclusters. The samples have been obtained by implanting the rare-earth (e.g. Er) in a film containing preformed Si nanocrystals. After the implant, samples have been treated at 900°C for 1h. This annealing temperature is not enough to re-crystallize all of the amorphized Si clusters. However, even if the Si nanoclusters are in the amorphous phase, they can still efficiently transfer the energy to nearby rare-earth ions. We developed a model for the Si nanoclusters-Er system, based on an energy level scheme taking into account the coupling between each Si nanocluster and the neighboring Er ions. By fitting the data, we were able to determine a value of 3×10−15 cm3 s−1 for the Si nanocluster-Er coupling coefficient. Moreover, a strong cooperative up-conversion mechanism between two excited Er ions and characterized by a coefficient of 7×10−17 cm3 s−1, is shown to be active in the system, demonstrating that more than one Er ion can be excited by the same nanocluster. We show that the overall light emission yield of the Er related luminescence can be enhanced by using higher concentrations of very small nanoaggregates. Eventually, electroluminescent devices based on rare-earth doped Si nanoclusters will be demonstrated.