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This chapter examines the applicable laws surrounding Brazil’s local content (LC) requirements along with the efficacy of such LC requirements. In doing so, this chapter first examines the history of LC rules through different stages of petroleum production in Brazil, mainly by examining various bid rounds. While not every bid round saw different local content, each round can be grouped into periods, which show a pendular behavior (from less to more stringent regulation). Further, from this background, an analysis of successes and failures of these local content policies is given, including the effects on sustainable development in Brazil.
As with any other country, LC rules in Brazil are a powerful tool to bolster the local economy. Brazil teaches positive and negative lessons concerning local content policies. Positive lessons include an efficient certified system to increase compliance and reduce governmental administration procedures. This increased the development of certain sectors, such as the naval and related industries. Negative lessons include unrealistic parameters and pervasive incentives to bid unrealistic local content terms. Another negative example might be the lack of distinction from small to large projects. Overall, Brazilian local content is devolved but still needs improvements and a strategic long-term plan to better achieve sustainable development goals.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: We hope to provide a more nuanced understanding of the type-III IFN system, thereby exploring its therapeutic potential in the realm of infectious diseases. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The role of IFNLR1 receptor dynamics and plasticity in regulating the type-III IFN response is largely unknown. As a specific, powerful component of innate immunity, understanding how the type-III IFN system is regulated could lead to the development of novel therapeutic targets and strategies to face a multitude of viral illnesses. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: To facilitate our investigation, we will generate doxycycline-inducible FLAG-tagged IFNLR1-expression plasmids representing all known transcriptional variants. These plasmids will allow us to: 1) Evaluate the effect of IFNLR1 surface abundance on the type-III IFN transcriptional profile and 2) Assess the extent of IFNLR1-FLAG co-localization with several notable intracellular structures using immunofluorescence, before and after stimulation with IFNL3. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We have successfully generated three IFNLR1-FLAG transcriptional variants and confirmed inducible-expression and function in vitro. We are currently assessing the role of surface abundance, internalization, differential isoform expression, and trafficking. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: By completing this study, we hope to provide a more nuanced understanding of the type-III IFN system, thereby exploring its therapeutic potential in the realm of infectious diseases.
Weed control of paraquat can be erratic and may be attributable to differing species sensitivity and/or environmental factors for which minor guidance is available on commercial labels. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to quantify selectivity of paraquat across select weed species and the influence of environmental factors. Experiments were performed under controlled conditions in the greenhouse and growth chamber. Compared with purple deadnettle (dose necessary to reduce shoot biomass by 50% = 39 g ai ha−1), waterhemp, Palmer amaranth, giant ragweed, and horseweed were 4.9, 3.3, 1.9, and 1.3 times more sensitive to paraquat, respectively. The injury progression rate over 3 d after treatment (DAT) was a more accurate predictor of final efficacy at 14 DAT than the lag phase until symptoms first appeared. For example, at the 17.5 g ha−1 dose, the injury rate of waterhemp and Palmer amaranth was, on average, 3.6 times greater than that of horseweed and purple deadnettle. The influence of various environmental factors on paraquat efficacy was weed specific. Applications made at sunrise improved control of purple deadnettle over applications at solar noon or sunset. Lower light intensities (200 or 600 μmol m−2 s−1) surrounding the time of application improved control of waterhemp and horseweed more than 1,000 μmol m−2 s−1. Day/night temperatures of 27/16 C improved horseweed and purple deadnettle control compared with day/night temperatures of 18/13 C. Though control was positively associated with injury rates in the application time of day and temperature experiments, a negative relationship was observed for waterhemp in the light-intensity experiment. Thus, although there are conditions that enhance paraquat efficacy, the specific target species must also be considered. These results advocate paraquat dose recommendations, currently based on weed height, be expanded to address sensitivity differences among weeds. Moreover, these findings contrast with paraquat labels stating temperatures of 13 C or lower do not reduce paraquat efficacy.
We report key learning from the public health management of the first two confirmed cases of COVID-19 identified in the UK. The first case imported, and the second associated with probable person-to-person transmission within the UK. Contact tracing was complex and fast-moving. Potential exposures for both cases were reviewed, and 52 contacts were identified. No further confirmed COVID-19 cases have been linked epidemiologically to these two cases. As steps are made to enhance contact tracing across the UK, the lessons learned from earlier contact tracing during the country's containment phase are particularly important and timely.
Nutritional therapy is a cornerstone of burns management. The optimal macronutrient intake for wound healing after burn injury has not been identified, although high-energy, high-protein diets are favoured. The present study aimed to identify the optimal macronutrient intake for burn wound healing. The geometric framework (GF) was used to analyse wound healing after a 10 % total body surface area contact burn in mice ad libitum fed one of the eleven high-energy diets, varying in macronutrient composition with protein (P5−60 %), carbohydrate (C20−75 %) and fat (F20−75 %). In the GF study, the optimal ratio for wound healing was identified as a moderate-protein, high-carbohydrate diet with a protein:carbohydrate:fat (P:C:F) ratio of 1:4:2. High carbohydrate intake was associated with lower mortality, improved body weight and a beneficial pattern of body fat reserves. Protein intake was essential to prevent weight loss and mortality, but a protein intake target of about 7 kJ/d (about 15 % of energy intake) was identified, above which no further benefit was gained. High protein intake was associated with delayed wound healing and increased liver and spleen weight. As the GF study demonstrated that an initial very high protein intake prevented mortality, a very high-protein, moderate-carbohydrate diet (P40:C42:F18) was specifically designed. The dynamic diet study was also designed to combine and validate the benefits of an initial very high protein intake for mortality, and subsequent moderate protein, high carbohydrate intake for optimal wound healing. The dynamic feeding experiment showed switching from an initial very high-protein diet to the optimal moderate-protein, high-carbohydrate diet accelerated wound healing whilst preventing mortality and liver enlargement.
Thin, roughly horizontal low-permeability layers are a common form of large-scale heterogeneity in geological porous formations. In this paper, the dynamics of a buoyancy-driven plume in a two-dimensional layered porous medium is studied theoretically, with the aid of high-resolution numerical simulations. The medium is uniform apart from a thin, horizontal layer of a much lower permeability, located a dimensionless distance
below the dense plume source. If the dimensionless thickness
of the low-permeability layer are small, the effect of the layer is found to be well parameterized by its impedance
. Five different regimes of flow are identified and characterized. For
, the layer has no effect on the plume, but as
is increased the plume widens and spreads over the layer as a gravity current. For still larger
, the flow becomes destabilized by convective instabilities both below and above the layer, until, for
, the spread of the plume is dominated by convective mixing and buoyancy is transported across the layer by diffusion alone. Analytical models for the spread of the plume over the layer in the various different regimes are presented.
The COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) project is a large international collaborative effort to analyze individual-level phenotype data from twins in multiple cohorts from different environments. The main objective is to study factors that modify genetic and environmental variation of height, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and size at birth, and additionally to address other research questions such as long-term consequences of birth size. The project started in 2013 and is open to all twin projects in the world having height and weight measures on twins with information on zygosity. Thus far, 54 twin projects from 24 countries have provided individual-level data. The CODATwins database includes 489,981 twin individuals (228,635 complete twin pairs). Since many twin cohorts have collected longitudinal data, there is a total of 1,049,785 height and weight observations. For many cohorts, we also have information on birth weight and length, own smoking behavior and own or parental education. We found that the heritability estimates of height and BMI systematically changed from infancy to old age. Remarkably, only minor differences in the heritability estimates were found across cultural–geographic regions, measurement time and birth cohort for height and BMI. In addition to genetic epidemiological studies, we looked at associations of height and BMI with education, birth weight and smoking status. Within-family analyses examined differences within same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins in birth size and later development. The CODATwins project demonstrates the feasibility and value of international collaboration to address gene-by-exposure interactions that require large sample sizes and address the effects of different exposures across time, geographical regions and socioeconomic status.
In 1979, in his edition of Medieval English Songs, Eric Dobson castigated the established practice of the then chief lyric collections where:
[T]he texts of the manuscripts, as read by the editors, are mostly printed without even the most obvious necessary changes: abnormal spellings, false forms, bad rhyme and worse metre, irregular or impossible accidence and syntax, and even sheer nonsense left uncorrected.
Why this lamentable failure of editors to edit? The answer lay partly in the chaotically corrupt state in which Middle English lyrics have survived. However incredible it may seem, where these lyrics are found in multiple copies, in not a single instance are any two versions of any one lyric found to be identical. Textual variations in different copies of the same lyric frequently manifest differences in wording, in word order, in order of lines, and even in order of stanzas, differences sometimes so bizarre as to suggest that scribes must not only often have copied carelessly but may sometimes have done so from memory, and often from bad memory at that. Indeed, as in the instances where lyrics survive in shorter and longer versions, it is evident that rewriting sometimes entered into the transmission process. This state of affairs gave rise to the assumption that Middle English lyrics were, by and large, corrupt beyond repair, and that the traditional procedures of textual criticism revered by editors of previous generations were defeated from the start. In particular, it seemed impossible to analyse surviving manuscripts in terms of the stemmata of classical editorial procedure whereby manuscript superiority leading to the privileging of more authoritative readings could be established.
Yet another important requirement of traditional editorial practice was lacking. As E. T. Donaldson observed concerning Chaucer, ‘it is impossible to edit at all without having in mind some fairly strong preconception concerning the metre’. Whether one thinks of classical Latin poetry or, indeed, of Beowulf, metre has played a vital role in arriving at editorial decisions. In the case of Middle English lyrics, however, one will search the older standard editions in vain for any sustained discussion of metre. A notion commonly, albeit often tacitly, accepted was that lyric scansion was appropriately to be analysed in terms of the number of stresses per line.
Background: Patients suffering from traumatic brain injury (TBI) are at increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). However, initiation of pharmacological venous thromboprophylaxis (VTEp) may cause further intracranial hemorrhage. We reviewed the literature to determine the postinjury time interval at which VTEp can be administered without risk of TBI evolution and hematoma expansion. Methods: MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched. Inclusion criteria were studies investigating timing and safety of VTEp in TBI patients not previously on oral anticoagulation. Two investigators extracted data and graded the papers’ levels of evidence. Randomized controlled trials were assessed for bias according to the Cochrane Collaboration Tool and Cohort studies were evaluated for bias using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. We performed univariate meta-regression analysis in an attempt to identify a relationship between VTEp timing and hemorrhagic progression and assess study heterogeneity using an I2 statistic. Results: Twenty-one studies were included in the systematic review. Eighteen total studies demonstrated that VTEp postinjury in patients with stable head computed tomography scan does not lead to TBI progression. Fourteen studies demonstrated that VTEp administration 24 to 72 hours postinjury is safe in patients with stable injury. Four studies suggested that administering VTEp within 24 hours of injury in patients with stable TBI does not lead to progressive intracranial hemorrhage. Overall, meta-regression analysis demonstrated that there was no relationship between rate of hemorrhagic progression and VTEp timing. Conclusions: Literature suggests that administering VTEp 24 to 48 hours postinjury may be safe for patients with low-hemorrhagic-risk TBIs and stable injury on repeat imaging.
Whether monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins differ from each other in a variety of phenotypes is important for genetic twin modeling and for inferences made from twin studies in general. We analyzed whether there were differences in individual, maternal and paternal education between MZ and DZ twins in a large pooled dataset. Information was gathered on individual education for 218,362 adult twins from 27 twin cohorts (53% females; 39% MZ twins), and on maternal and paternal education for 147,315 and 143,056 twins respectively, from 28 twin cohorts (52% females; 38% MZ twins). Together, we had information on individual or parental education from 42 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. The original education classifications were transformed to education years and analyzed using linear regression models. Overall, MZ males had 0.26 (95% CI [0.21, 0.31]) years and MZ females 0.17 (95% CI [0.12, 0.21]) years longer education than DZ twins. The zygosity difference became smaller in more recent birth cohorts for both males and females. Parental education was somewhat longer for fathers of DZ twins in cohorts born in 1990–1999 (0.16 years, 95% CI [0.08, 0.25]) and 2000 or later (0.11 years, 95% CI [0.00, 0.22]), compared with fathers of MZ twins. The results show that the years of both individual and parental education are largely similar in MZ and DZ twins. We suggest that the socio-economic differences between MZ and DZ twins are so small that inferences based upon genetic modeling of twin data are not affected.
Poly (lactic acid) (PLA) bioplastics are recyclable and biodegradable thermoplastics. They are derived from environmentally friendly sources such as potatoes, cornstarch and sugarcane. However, PLA is inherently brittle with low impact strength. The goal of this study is to improve mechanical properties of PLA by the addition of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) fillers. PLA composites were prepared by injection molding conventional limestone (LS) and white chicken eggshell (WES) powders with particle sizes of 63 μm and 32 μm in amounts of 5 wt. %, 10 wt. % and 20 wt. %. Mechanical properties such as, tensile strength, tensile modulus, and Charpy impact strengths were investigated. These three properties were evaluated and the results statistically analyzed using ANOVA F-test. For both particle sizes, the tensile strength decreased as the filler content increased, but was highest for a filler loading of 5 wt. %. In general, the 32 μm powder fillers had better tensile strengths than 63 μm sized fillers. The tensile modulus increased with filler content and was highest at 20 wt. % for both particle sizes. The LS/PLA composites had better toughness than the WES/PLA composites. The particle filler morphology and fractured surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and determined to have well dispersed particles with smooth fractured surfaces. Water absorption behavior of PLA/CaCO3 composites were studied by immersion in distilled water at room temperature for 56 days. Virgin PLA absorbed the least amount of water while the water absorption of CaCO3 composites were a function of powder type and content.
Depression is a significant problem and it is vital to understand its underlying causes and related policy implications. Neighborhood characteristics are implicated in depression but the nature of this association is unclear. Unobserved or unmeasured factors may confound the relationship. This study addresses confounding in a twin study investigating neighborhood-level effects on depression controlling for genetics, common environment, and gene×environment (G × E) interactions.
Data on neighborhood deprivation and depression were gathered from 3155 monozygotic twin pairs and 1275 dizygotic pairs (65.7% female) between 2006 and 2013. The variance for both depression and neighborhood deprivation was decomposed into three components: additive genetic variance (A); shared environmental variance (C); and non-shared environmental variance (E). Depression was then regressed on neighborhood deprivation to test the direct association and whether that association was confounded. We also tested for a G × E interaction in which the heritability of depression was modified by the level of neighborhood deprivation.
Depression and neighborhood deprivation showed evidence of significant A (21.8% and 15.9%, respectively) and C (13.9% and 32.7%, respectively) variance. Depression increased with increasing neighborhood deprivation across all twins (p = 0.009), but this regression was not significant after controlling for A and C variance common to both phenotypes (p = 0.615). The G × E model showed genetic influences on depression increasing with increasing neighborhood deprivation (p < 0.001).
Neighborhood deprivation is an important contributor to depression via increasing the genetic risk. Modifiable pathways that link neighborhoods to depression have been proposed and should serve as targets for intervention and research.
It has generally been accepted that moving type IV bursts are generated as synchrotron radiation from energetic electrons high in the solar corona (Boischot and Denisse 1957). At 80 MHz the peak brightness temperature is usually ~ 108 K and the radiation becomes highly circularly polarized as the burst decays. This has led several authors (Kai 1969; Dulk 1970, 1973; Schmahl 1972; Robinson 1974, 1977; Nelson 1977) to the conclusion that the radiation comes from mildly relativistic (~ 100 keV) electrons and occurs at low harmonics of the gyro-frequency (gyro-synchrotron radiation). We present evidence of moving type IV bursts at 43, 80 and 160 MHz with brightness temperatures of ~ 109 K, and one at 43 MHz as high as 1010 K. The number (~ 1033) of energetic (≥ 1 MeV) electrons which is required in order to explain such high brightness temperatures by incoherent gyro-synchrotron emission is very large and near the upper limit for the number of fast electrons accelerated in the second phase of a solar flare. If amplification takes place a smaller number of electrons with energies ~ 100 keV would be required.
Several airborne radar-sounding surveys are used to trace internal reflections around the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica Dome C and Vostok ice core sites. Thirteen reflections, spanning the last two glacial cycles, are traced within 200 km of Dome C, a promising region for million-year-old ice, using the University of Texas Institute for Geophysics High-Capacity Radar Sounder. This provides a dated stratigraphy to 2318 m depth at Dome C. Reflection age uncertainties are calculated from the radar range precision and signal-to-noise ratio of the internal reflections. The radar stratigraphy matches well with the Multichannel Coherent Radar Depth Sounder (MCoRDS) radar stratigraphy obtained independently. We show that radar sounding enables the extension of ice core ages through the ice sheet with an additional radar-related age uncertainty of ~1/3–1/2 that of the ice cores. Reflections are extended along the Byrd-Totten Glacier divide, using University of Texas/Technical University of Denmark and MCoRDS surveys. However, core-to-core connection is impeded by pervasive aeolian terranes, and Lake Vostok's influence on reflection geometry. Poor radar connection of the two ice cores is attributed to these effects and suboptimal survey design in affected areas. We demonstrate that, while ice sheet internal radar reflections are generally isochronal and can be mapped over large distances, careful survey planning is necessary to extend ice core chronologies to distant regions of the East Antarctic ice sheet.