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The interaction of relativistically intense lasers with opaque targets represents a highly non-linear, multi-dimensional parameter space. This limits the utility of sequential 1D scanning of experimental parameters for the optimization of secondary radiation, although to-date this has been the accepted methodology due to low data acquisition rates. High repetition-rate (HRR) lasers augmented by machine learning present a valuable opportunity for efficient source optimization. Here, an automated, HRR-compatible system produced high-fidelity parameter scans, revealing the influence of laser intensity on target pre-heating and proton generation. A closed-loop Bayesian optimization of maximum proton energy, through control of the laser wavefront and target position, produced proton beams with equivalent maximum energy to manually optimized laser pulses but using only 60% of the laser energy. This demonstration of automated optimization of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step towards deeper physical insight and the construction of future radiation sources.
We present the development and characterization of a high-stability, multi-material, multi-thickness tape-drive target for laser-driven acceleration at repetition rates of up to 100 Hz. The tape surface position was measured to be stable on the sub-micrometre scale, compatible with the high-numerical aperture focusing geometries required to achieve relativistic intensity interactions with the pulse energy available in current multi-Hz and near-future higher repetition-rate lasers (
kHz). Long-term drift was characterized at 100 Hz demonstrating suitability for operation over extended periods. The target was continuously operated at up to 5 Hz in a recent experiment for 70,000 shots without intervention by the experimental team, with the exception of tape replacement, producing the largest data-set of relativistically intense laser–solid foil measurements to date. This tape drive provides robust targetry for the generation and study of high-repetition-rate ion beams using next-generation high-power laser systems, also enabling wider applications of laser-driven proton sources.
People with lived experience of incarceration have higher rates of morbidity and mortality compared to people without history of incarceration. Research conducted unethically in prisons and jails led to increased scrutiny of research to ensure the needs of those studied are protected. One consequence of increased restrictions on research with criminal-legal involved populations is reluctance to engage in research evaluations of healthcare for people who are incarcerated and people who have lived experience of incarceration. Ethical research can be done in partnership with people with lived experience of incarceration and other key stakeholders and should be encouraged. In this article, we describe how stakeholder engagement can be accomplished in this setting, and further, how such engagement leads to impactful research that can be disseminated and implemented across disciplines and communities. The goal is to build trust across the spectrum of people who work, live in, or are impacted by the criminal-legal system, with the purpose of moving toward health equity.
Background: Standard of care treatment for adult intracranial ependymoma patients includes maximal safe surgical resection, while the role for adjuvant radiotherapy remains unclear with existing data from small retrospective series’. Accordingly, we built a multi-institutional cohort to assess the prognostic value of adjuvant radiotherapy and other clinical factors in these patients. Methods: Patients managed for adult intracranial ependymomas from 1968 onwards within the University Health Network in Toronto, The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, and The Ottawa Hospital were identified. Multivariate models assessing the prognostic value of clinical factors were built using variables with known prognostic value and/or significance in univariate Cox models. Results: Of 122 ependymomas, 71% were infratentorial, 78% grade two, 55% gross/near-totally resected (GTR/NTR), and 65% treated with adjuvant radiotherapy. Multivariate analyses identified GTR/NTR (vs. subtotal resection; HR=0.2, 95%CI=0.1–0.4, p<0.0001) and cranial (HR=0.5, 95%CI=0.2–1.1) or craniospinal (HR=0.2, 95%CI=0.04–0.5) radiotherapy receipt (p=0.01) as independent statistically significant predictors of more favourable PFS. Grade II pathology (vs. grade III; HR=0.2, 95%CI=0.05–0.6, p=0.006) and GTR/NTR (vs. subtotal resection; HR=0.1, 95%CI=0.03–0.3, p=0.0001) were independent statistically significant predictors of better OS. Conclusions: This work confirms the importance of maximal safe resection for adult intracranial ependymomas and establishes that adjuvant radiotherapy improves progression-free survival in these patients.
Two common approaches to identify subgroups of patients with bipolar disorder are clustering methodology (mixture analysis) based on the age of onset, and a birth cohort analysis. This study investigates if a birth cohort effect will influence the results of clustering on the age of onset, using a large, international database.
The database includes 4037 patients with a diagnosis of bipolar I disorder, previously collected at 36 collection sites in 23 countries. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to adjust the data for country median age, and in some models, birth cohort. Model-based clustering (mixture analysis) was then performed on the age of onset data using the residuals. Clinical variables in subgroups were compared.
There was a strong birth cohort effect. Without adjusting for the birth cohort, three subgroups were found by clustering. After adjusting for the birth cohort or when considering only those born after 1959, two subgroups were found. With results of either two or three subgroups, the youngest subgroup was more likely to have a family history of mood disorders and a first episode with depressed polarity. However, without adjusting for birth cohort (three subgroups), family history and polarity of the first episode could not be distinguished between the middle and oldest subgroups.
These results using international data confirm prior findings using single country data, that there are subgroups of bipolar I disorder based on the age of onset, and that there is a birth cohort effect. Including the birth cohort adjustment altered the number and characteristics of subgroups detected when clustering by age of onset. Further investigation is needed to determine if combining both approaches will identify subgroups that are more useful for research.
Schizolite, originating from the type locality, Tutop Agtakôrfia, in the Ilímaussaq alkaline complex, Julianehåb district, South Greenland, was described initially by Winther (1901) with additional data being supplied by Bøggild (1903). Recently, a proposal for the new mineral ‘marshallsussmanite’ was submitted to, and approved by, the International Mineralogical Association Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclature and Classification (IMA2013-067) by Origlieri et al. (2013). Results from the detailed examination of two schizolite cotype samples presented here, using single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, and optical properties, confirms it to be equivalent to ‘marshallsussmanite’. Historical precedence sets a priority for discrediting the name ‘marshallsussmanite’ in favour of the original, more-than-a century-old name, schizolite. The two schizolite samples investigated vary slightly in physical and chemical properties but are consistent overall. The prismatic crystals are pale red or pink to brownish. Schizolite is brittle with a splintery aspect. It is biaxial (+), with average optical parameters: α = 1.626 ± 0.003, β = 1.630 ± 0.002, γ = 1.661 ± 0.002, 2Vmeas = 71(4)° and 2Vcalc = 40°; there is no pleochroism. Electron microprobe analysis shows both samples have nearly identical compositions (differences <0.4 wt.% oxide), with the mean values of: SiO2 52.6(4); Al2O3 0.005(1); FeO 2.54(2); MnO 13.86(9); CaO 17.9(4); Na2O 8.9(1); and H2O 2.59(2) wt.% oxide; this corresponds to a mean formula of: Na1.00(2)Ca1.11(7)Mn0.68(1)Fe0.12(0)Si3.041(1)O8(OH). Final least-squares structure refinements for both samples converged at R1 values ≤2.0%; H atoms were located in all refinements.
The effect of irrigation and weed control by various mechanical and chemical means was evaluated over a 4-yr period on newly planted pecans [Carya illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch]. Weed control effect on tree growth became evident in the second growing season, and became more pronounced after the third and fourth season. After the fourth season, the maximum increase in tree diameter (384%) was achieved with comprehensive, herbicide-based weed control. Mowing provided a 224% increase, which was equivalent to the untreated (229%). Disking and selective chemical control of grass weeds resulted in 339 and 292% increase, respectively. Cumulative increase in tree diameter was 316 and 271% with and without irrigation, respectively.
Identifying early markers of risk for anxiety disorders in children may aid in understanding underlying mechanisms and informing prevention efforts. Affective modulation of the startle response indexes sensitivity to pleasant and unpleasant environmental contexts and has been shown to relate to anxiety, yet the extent to which abnormalities in affect-modulated startle reflect vulnerability for anxiety disorders in children has yet to be examined. The current study assessed the effects of parental psychopathology on affective modulation of startle in offspring.
Nine-year-old children (n = 144) with no history of anxiety or depressive disorders completed a passive picture viewing task in which eye-blink startle responses were measured during the presentation of pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant images.
Maternal anxiety was associated with distinct patterns of affective modulation of startle in offspring, such that children with maternal histories of anxiety showed potentiation of the startle response while viewing unpleasant images, but not attenuation during pleasant images, whereas children with no maternal history of anxiety exhibited attenuation of the startle response during pleasant images, but did not exhibit unpleasant potentiation – even when controlling for child symptoms of anxiety and depression. No effects of maternal depression or paternal psychopathology were observed.
These findings suggest that both enhanced startle responses in unpleasant conditions and failure to inhibit startle responses in pleasant conditions may reflect early emerging vulnerabilities that contribute to the later development of anxiety disorders.
Transverse microradiography (TMR) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) are commonly used for characterizing dental tissues. TMR utilizes an approximately monochromatic X-ray beam to determine the mass attenuation of the sample, which is converted to volume percent mineral (vol%min). An EPMA stimulates the emission of characteristic X-rays from a variable volume of sample (dependent on density) to provide compositional information. The aim of this study was to compare the assessment of sound, demineralized, and remineralized enamel using both techniques. Human enamel samples were demineralized and a part of each was subsequently remineralized. The same line profile through each demineralized lesion was analyzed using TMR and EPMA to determine vol%min and wt% elemental composition and atomic concentration ratio information, respectively. The vol%min and wt% values determined by each technique were significantly correlated but the absolute values were not similar. This was attributable to the complex ultrastructural composition, the variable density of the samples analyzed, and the nonlinear interaction of the EPMA-generated X-rays. EPMA remains an important technique for obtaining atomic ratio information, but its limitations in determining absolute mineral content indicate that it should not be used in place of TMR for determining the mineral density of dental hard tissues.
We present Herschel-SPIRE imaging spectroscopy (194-671 μm) of the bright starburst galaxy M82. We use RADEX and a Bayesian Likelihood Analysis to simultaneously model the temperature, density, column density, and filling factor of both the cool and warm components of molecular gas traced by the entire CO ladder up to J=13-12. The high-J lines observed by SPIRE trace much warmer gas (~500 K) than those observable from the ground. The addition of 13CO (and [C I]) is new and indicates that [C I] may be tracing different gas than 12CO. At such a high temperature, cooling is dominated by molecular hydrogen; we conclude with a discussion on the possible excitation processes in this warm component. Photon-dominated region (PDR) models require significantly higher densities than those indicated by our Bayesian likelihood analysis in order to explain the high-J CO line ratios, though cosmic-ray enhanced PDR models can do a better job reproducing the emission at lower densities. Shocks and turbulent heating are likely required to explain the bright high-J emission.