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Depression is known to be associated with low serum Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and elevated levels of cortisol. Yoga has been shown to be associated with significant antidepressant effect as well as increase in serum BDNF levels and reduction in serum cortisol levels in these patients.
Aims and Objectives
We examined the association between serum cortisol and BDNF levels in patients with depression who were on treatment with antidepressants, yoga therapy, and both in combination.
Fifty-one consenting drug-naive outpatients (29 males) aged between 18-55 years, diagnosed with Major Depression received antidepressant medication alone (n=15), yoga therapy with (n=18), or without (n=18) concurrent antidepressants. Subjects in the yoga groups practiced a specific Yoga module for three months. Depression was assessed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Serum BDNF & cortisol levels were obtained before and after three months using sandwich ELISA method. The group differences were analyzed using one-way ANOVA. Correlations between Serum BDNF & cortisol levels were analyzed using Pearson's correlation.
Significant negative correlations were observed between baseline BDNF & cortisol levels in the Yoga+Medication group (r=0.569*; P=0.01), and between change in BDNF and cortisol level in the Yoga alone group (r=0.582*; P=0.01). No other significant correlations were found.
There is a significant association between serum cortisol and BDNF levels in patients with depression who underwent Yoga with or without antidepressants. This suggests that Yoga may have stress reduction and neuroplastic effects alone or in combination with medications in depressed patients.
The aim of the present study was to explore and compare the association between a new vasoactive score – the Total Inotrope Exposure Score – and outcome and the established Vasoactive Inotrope Score in children undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass
The present study was a single-centre, retrospective study.
The study was carried out at a 21-bed cardiovascular ICU in a Tertiary Children’s Hospital between September, 2010 and May, 2011
The Total Inotrope Exposure Score is a new vasoactive score that brings together cumulative vasoactive drug exposure and incorporates dose adjustments over time. The performance of these scores – average, maximum Vasoactive Inotrope Score at 24 and 48 hours, and Total Inotrope Exposure Score – to predict primary clinical outcomes – either death, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, or extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation before hospital discharge – and secondary outcomes – length of invasive mechanical ventilation, length of ICU stay, and hospital stay – was calculated.
The study cohort included 167 children under 18 years of age, with 37 (22.2%) neonates and 65 (41.3%) infants aged between 1 month and 1 year. The Total Inotrope Exposure Score best predicted the primary outcome (six of 167 cases) with an unadjusted odds ratio for a poor outcome of 42 (4.8, 369.6). Although the area under curve was higher than other scores, this difference did not reach statistical significance. The Total Inotrope Exposure Score best predicted prolonged invasive mechanical ventilation, length of ICU stay, and hospital stay as compared with the other scores.
The Total Inotrope Exposure Score appears to have a good association with poor postoperative outcomes and warrants prospective validation across larger numbers of patients across institutions.