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Low urinary iodine concentration (UIC) is associated with dyslipidaemia in adults but is not well characterised in adolescents. Because dyslipidaemia is a cardiovascular risk factor, identifying such an association in adolescents would allow for the prescription of appropriate measures to maintain cardiovascular health. The present study addresses this question using data in the 2001–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 1692 adolescents aged 12–19 years. Primary outcomes were UIC, cardiometabolic risk factors and dyslipidaemia. Data for subjects categorised by low and normal UIC and by sex were analysed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Treating UIC as the independent variable, physical activity level, apoB and lipid profiles differed significantly between subjects with low and normal UIC. Subjects with low UIC had a significantly greater risk of elevated total cholesterol (TC) (95 % CI 1·37, 2·81), elevated non-HDL (95 % CI 1·33, 2·76) and elevated LDL (95 % CI 1·83, 4·19) compared with those with normal UIC. Treating UIC as a dependent variable, the risk of low UIC was significantly greater in those with higher apoB (95 % CI 1·52, 19·08), elevated TC (≥4·4mmol/l) (95 % CI 1·37, 2·81) and elevated non-HDL (≥3·11mmol/l) (95 % CI 1·33, 2·76) than in those with normal UIC. These results show that male and female adolescents with low UIC tend to be at greater risk of dyslipidaemia and abnormal cardiometabolic biomarkers, though the specific abnormal parameters differed between sexes. These results may help to identify youth who would benefit from interventions to improve their cardiometabolic risk.
The electron emission yield γ induced by Ne2+ and O2+ impacting on a clean tungsten surface has been measured. The range of projectile energy is from 3 keV/u to 14 keV/u. The total electron yield gradually increases with the projectile velocity. It is found simultaneously that the total electron yield for O2+ is larger than the total electron yield for Ne2+, which is opposite to the results for higher projectile velocity. After considering the contribution from recoiling atoms to the energy distribution and electron emission yield, we find that recoiling atoms are of crucial importance in electron emission in our energy range. Thus, the unexpected results in our experiment can be explained successfully.
Total electron emission yield for impact of slow Neq+(q = 2, 4, 6, 8) ions with various kinetic energy under normal incidence on n-type Si has been measured. It is shown that for the same charge state, the total electron yield γ increases linearly as the kinetic energy of projectile at impact increases, up to velocities corresponding to the “classical” threshold. Separation of kinetic electron yield γKE and potential electron yield γPE shows that γPE is proportional to the ion charge state and γKE increases linearly with projectile velocity. Finally, based on “single hole without hopping” hypothesis, the expression of the “CRF” F(q) is given, and the relation between γKE and q is obtained successfully for the first time, which is also a basis for judging whether the “trampoline effect” exists.
X-ray emission from Xe30+ ions at 350–600 keV impacting on an Au target was investigated at the Heavy Ion Research Facility at Lanzhou. Characteristic X-rays of Xe ions at energy of about 1.65 keV were observed. This X-ray emission is induced by the decay of very high Rydberg states of Xe ions. It was also found that the yield of such characteristic X-rays is decreasing with increasing the projectile kinetic energy. Simultaneously, the yield of the characteristic Au X-rays from the M shell increases also. These phenomena are qualitatively analyzed with the classical Coulomb over the Barrier Mode (COBM) for highly charged ions interacting with solid state surfaces.
A new method to focus a relativistic charged particle beam is suggested and studied. This idea is based on the use of the ponderomotive force which arises when a periodic electromagnetic field is created, as in the case of two crossed laser beams.
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