Calcite spherulites have been observed in many laboratory experiments with different bacteria, and spherulitic growth has received much interest in mineralogy research. However, the nucleation and growth mechanism, as well as geological significance of calcite spherulites in solution with bacteria is still unclear. Herein, spherulites composed of an amorphous core, a Mg-calcite body and an organic film were precipitated by the Curvibacter lanceolatus HJ-1 bacterial strain in a solution with a molar Mg/Ca ratio of 3. Based on the results, we provide a possible mechanism for the biomineralization of Mg-calcite spherulites. First, amorphous calcium carbonate particles are deposited and aggregated into a stable sphere-like core in combination with organic molecules. The core then acts as the nucleus of spherulitic radial growth. Finally, the organic film grows on the surface of Mg-calcite spherulites as a result of bacterial metabolism and calcification. These findings provide insight into the growth mode and crystallization of biogenic spherulites during biomineralization, and are of significance in the application of novel biological materials.