To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The fabrication of highly doped and ultra-shallow junctions in silicon is a very challenging problem for the materials scientist. The activation levels which are targeted are well beyond the solubility limit of current dopants in Si and, ideally, they should not diffuse during the activation annealing. In practice, the situation is even worse and when boron is implanted into silicon excess Si interstitial atoms are generated which enhance boron diffusion and favor the formation of Boron-Silicon Interstitials Clusters (BICs). An elegant approach to overcome these difficulties is to enrich the Si layers where boron will be implanted with vacancies before or during the activation annealing. Spectacular results have been recently brought to the community showing both a significant control over dopant diffusion and an increased activation of boron in such layers. In general, the enrichment of the Si layers with vacancies is obtained by Si+ implantation at high energy. We have recently developed an alternative approach in which the vacancies are injected from populations of empty voids undergoing Ostwald ripening during annealing. While different, the effects are also spectacular. The goal of this work is to establish a fair evaluation of these different approaches under technologically relevant conditions. The application domains of both techniques are discussed and future directions for their development/improvement are indicated.
In this paper, the evolution of sheet resistance, junction depth and defects during the whole thermal cycle of a typical spike anneal with a peak temperature of 1050°C was investigated in detail. To this purpose, spike anneals were performed at peak temperatures ranging from 800°C up to 1050°C in temperature steps of 50°C. These experiments were done both on B+ (500 eV, 1.1015 cm−2) and BF2+ (2.2 keV, 1.1015 cm−2) implanted wafers. It is found that for temperatures below 850°C BF2+ implanted wafers exhibit a much better electrical activation, resulting in a lower sheet resistance, than B+ implanted ones, due to the amorphisation process occurring during the BF2+ implant and the subsequent solid phase epitaxial growth. In this low temperature regime, boron clustering takes place very rapidly in B+ implanted wafers, as confirmed by both SIMS and TEM analysis. In particular, “large” clusters, i.e. with diameter above the TEM detection limit (∼2 nm), undergo a classical Ostwald ripening process (increase in size, decrease in density). SRP measurements indicate that boron activation in this low temperature regime is not related to cluster dissolution. On the other hand, after the initial solid phase epitaxial regrowth, BF2+ implanted wafers exhibit a slight increase in sheet resistance, due to boron clustering induced by the dissolution of end of range defects. Finally, it is found that at higher spike anneal temperatures (above 850°C), both B+ and BF2+ implanted wafers exhibit a similar behaviour, with a progressive decrease in sheet resistance due to boron cluster dissolution and dopant diffusion.
We present an extensive study of the thermal evolution of the extended defects found in ion implanted Si as a function of annealing conditions. We will first review their structure and energetics and show that the defect kinetics can be described by an Ostwald ripening process whereby the defects exchange Si atoms and evolve in size and type to minimise their formation energy. Finally, we will present a physically based model to predict the evolution of extrinsic defects during annealing through the calculation of defect densities, size distributions, number of clustered interstitials and free-interstitial supersaturation. We will show some successful applications of our model to a variety of experimental conditions and give an example of its predictive capabilities at ultra low implantation energies.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.