It is recognised that wild ungulate species can have a profound effect on their environment and that this may often cause conflict with human land-use objectives (e.g. Eiberle and Nigg, 1983, 1987; Putman and Moore, 1998; Fuller and Gill, 2001; Putman, 2004). Whereas in the past much of the focus on damage by ungulates was in relation to damage to agriculture (Stahl, 1979; Gossow, 1983; Putman and Kjellander, 2002), damage to forestry through browsing and bark stripping is clearly also a major and increasing problem in many European countries (e.g. Mitchell et al., 1977; Mayer and Ott, 1991; Gill, 1992a, 1992b; Donaubauer, 1994; Kuiters et al., 1996). In agriculture impacts from wild boar especially are described once again as an ever-growing problem (e.g. Schley and Roper, 2003; Arnold, 2005; Wildauer, 2006; Wildauer and Reimoser, 2007a, 2007b; Apollonio et al., 2010a).
In some countries, there is also increasing concern being expressed about damage to conservation habitats (Reimoser, 1993, 2002; Putman and Moore, 1998; Reimoser et al., 1999; SNH/DCS, 2002; Putman, 2004; Casaer and Licoppe, 2010; van Wieren and Groot Bruinderink, 2010).
Collisions of ungulates with motor vehicles (accidents with cars, trains, etc.) are also increasing (Groot Bruinderink and Hazebroek, 1996; Putman et al., 2004; Chapter 8, this volume). Sickness transfer by wild ungulates to domestic animals and humans is a severe problem in some regions.