To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Self-awareness increases dramatically for adolescents worldwide. We seek to understand how cultural differences in self-awareness may contribute to cultural differences in spiritual awareness among adolescents. The focus is on comparisons between European-Americans and East Asians. There is little research on cultural differences in self-awareness, despite substantial evidence of cultural differences in its key components: (1) the vantage point of awareness – whether it is a first person perspective, from the inside-out (European-Americans) or a third person perspective, from the outside-in (East Asians); (2) the conception of self and of standards – whether self is seen as relatively independent and standards are based on personal desires and ideals (European-Americans) or self is seen as interdependent and standards are based on social obligations and norms (East Asians); and (3) the nature of self-evaluation – whether it is focused on enhancing esteem (European-Americans) or maintaining face (East Asians). We suggest that self-awareness may activate mortality salience and thereby may elicit cultural worldviews. Cultural differences in self-awareness leads to different spiritualities that present different “worldview” defenses against the existential concerns engendered by the interaction of self-awareness and mortality salience. Salvation through prayer and through good deeds, and approval from a loving God, common in Christianity, alleviate European-Americans’ mortality concerns. By contrast, meditation, self change, and unity with the universe, common in Buddhism, alleviate East Asians’ mortality concerns.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.