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The American crocodile Crocodylus acutus occurs across the Americas, with its northernmost distribution being in South Florida, USA. This species has undergone severe declines across its range and is categorized globally as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List and as Threatened on the U.S. Federal Endangered Species List. Long-term monitoring studies in the USA have documented a shift in American crocodile nesting activity and an expansion of its range throughout the southern and eastern coasts of South Florida. However, no successful American crocodile nests have been recorded until now on the west coast of South Florida. Here we document the American crocodile nest monitoring conducted during 1997–2021 at Rookery Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve and the first successful nest from the west coast of South Florida for C. acutus. Marco Airport and McIlvane Marsh are the two main American crocodile nesting areas identified at the Reserve, with 92 nests and 3,586 eggs recorded during 1997–2021. We found most nests at Marco Airport (95.7%) and only four nests (4.3%) at McIlvane Marsh. To date, none of the nests found at Marco Airport have produced successful hatchlings. In contrast, hatchlings have been produced at McIlvane Marsh since nests were first documented there in 2020. We discuss the implications of our findings in terms of the future conservation of the species.
Carnivores are valued by conservationists globally but protecting them can impose direct costs on rural, livestock-dependent communities. Financial incentives are increasingly used with the goal of increasing people's tolerance of predators, but the definition of tolerance has been vague and inconsistent. Empirical correlations between attitudinal and behavioural measures of tolerance imply that attitudes may be a valid proxy for behaviours. However, theoretical differences between the concepts suggest that attitudinal tolerance and behavioural intention to kill cats would have different underlying determinants. We surveyed 112 residents within a forest–farm mosaic in northern Belize inhabited by jaguars Panthera onca and four other species of wild cats. A conservation payment programme pays local landowners when camera traps record cat presence on their land. Results indicated that tolerance was associated with gender and participation in the camera-trapping programme, whereas intention to kill cats was associated with cultural group (Mennonites vs Mestizos), presence of children in the home and, to a lesser extent, tolerance. Neither dependent variable was significantly related to depredation losses or economic factors. Results suggest that monetary payments alone are unlikely to affect attitudes and behaviours towards carnivores. Payment programmes may be enhanced by accentuating non-monetary incentives, leveraging social norms and targeting specific groups with information about risks and benefits associated with carnivores. By empirically separating two concepts commonly conflated as ‘tolerance’ we clarify understanding of how social forces interact with financial incentives to shape people's relationships with predators.
Results from the Arecibo HI Strip Survey, an unbiased extragalactic HI survey, combined with optical and 21 cm follow-up observations, determine the HI mass function and the cosmological mass density of HI at the present epoch. Both are consistent with earlier estimates, computed for the population of optically selected galaxies. This consistency occurs because, although the distribution of optical central surface brightnesses among galaxies is flat, we fail to find a population of galaxies with central surface brightnesses fainter than 24 B-mag arcsec−2, even though there is no observational selection against them.
To determine whether there is a difference in antibody titers and functionality after receipt of the influenza vaccine for obese versus nonobese healthcare workers (HCW).
Prospective observational study.
Tertiary medical center.
Baseline influenza antibody titers for obese and nonobese HCW were recorded during the hospital’s 2011 annual influenza vaccination day and follow-up antibody titers were measured 4 weeks later. Antibodies were measured using the hemagglutination inhibition assay and functionality was measured using the micro-neutralization method.
Of 200 initial HCWs, 190 completed the study (97 obese and 93 nonobese). Seroprotection after immunization was not significantly different for nonobese compared with obese HCW for each strain (influenza A [H1N1], 99% and 99%; influenza A [H3N2], 100% and 99%; and influenza B, 67% and 71%, respectively)
All geometric mean titers measured by micro-neutralization showed statistically significant increases in activity. In comparison, there was no difference in the 4-fold increase in H1N1 or B titers. There was a significant difference in the 4-fold increase of H3N2 titers between the nonobese and obese HCWs (82/93 [88%] vs 64/97 [66%], P=.003)
In an ad hoc analysis we found that obese HCWs had a statistically greater number of 4-fold decreases in titers with H1N1 and H3N2.
There was no significant difference in protection from influenza between obese and nonobese HCWs after immunization.
We present the results of an approximately 6 100 deg2 104–196 MHz radio sky survey performed with the Murchison Widefield Array during instrument commissioning between 2012 September and 2012 December: the MWACS. The data were taken as meridian drift scans with two different 32-antenna sub-arrays that were available during the commissioning period. The survey covers approximately 20.5 h < RA < 8.5 h, − 58° < Dec < −14°over three frequency bands centred on 119, 150 and 180 MHz, with image resolutions of 6–3 arcmin. The catalogue has 3 arcmin angular resolution and a typical noise level of 40 mJy beam− 1, with reduced sensitivity near the field boundaries and bright sources. We describe the data reduction strategy, based upon mosaicked snapshots, flux density calibration, and source-finding method. We present a catalogue of flux density and spectral index measurements for 14 110 sources, extracted from the mosaic, 1 247 of which are sub-components of complexes of sources.
Significant new opportunities for astrophysics and cosmology have been identified at low radio frequencies. The Murchison Widefield Array is the first telescope in the southern hemisphere designed specifically to explore the low-frequency astronomical sky between 80 and 300 MHz with arcminute angular resolution and high survey efficiency. The telescope will enable new advances along four key science themes, including searching for redshifted 21-cm emission from the EoR in the early Universe; Galactic and extragalactic all-sky southern hemisphere surveys; time-domain astrophysics; and solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric science and space weather. The Murchison Widefield Array is located in Western Australia at the site of the planned Square Kilometre Array (SKA) low-band telescope and is the only low-frequency SKA precursor facility. In this paper, we review the performance properties of the Murchison Widefield Array and describe its primary scientific objectives.
We present a measurement of the HI column density distribution function f(Nhi) at the present epoch for column densities > 1020 cm−2. These high column densities compare to those measured in damped Lyα lines seen in absorption against background quasars. Although observationally rare, it appears that the bulk of the neutral gas in the Universe is associated with these damped Lyα systems. In order to obtain a good anchor point at z = 0 we determine f(Nhi) in the local Universe by using 21 cm synthesis observations of a complete sample of spiral galaxies. We show that f(Nhi) for damped Lyα systems has changed significantly from high z to the present and that change is greatest for the highest column densities. The measurements indicate that low surface brightness galaxies make a minor contribution to the cross section for HI, especially for NHI > 1021 cm−2.
Digital signal processing is one of many valuable tools for suppressing unwanted signals or inter-ference. Building hardware processing engines seems to be the way to best implement some classes of interference suppression but is, unfortunately, expensive and time-consuming, especially if several miti-gation techniques need to be compared. Simulations can be useful, but are not a substitute for real data. CSIRO’s Australia Telescope National Facility has recently commenced a ‘software radio telescope’ project designed to fill the gap between dedicated hardware processors and pure simulation. In this approach, real telescope data are recorded coherently, then processed offline. This paper summarises the current contents of a freely available database of base band recorded data that can be used to experiment with signal processing solutions. It includes data from the following systems: single dish, multi-feed receiver; single dish with reference antenna; and an array of six 22 m antennas with and without a reference antenna. Astronomical sources such as OH masers, pulsars and continuum sources subject to interfering signals were recorded. The interfering signals include signals from the US Global Positioning System (GPS) and its Russian equivalent (GLONASS), television, microwave links, a low-Earth-orbit satellite, various other transmitters, and signals leaking from local telescope systems with fast clocks. The data are available on compact disk, allowing use in general purpose computers or as input to laboratory hardware prototypes.
We use observations from the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) to measure the atomic hydrogen gas content of star-forming galaxies at z = 0.24 (i.e. a look-backtime of ~3 Gyr). To measure the HI 21 cm emission signal we stack the signal from 121 galaxies with known optical positions and redshifts. We find an average HI mass for the galaxies of (2.26 ± 0.90) × 109 M⊙. We translate this HI measurement into a cosmic density of neutral gas at z=0.24 of Ωgas = (0.91 ± 0.42) × 10−3. This value is consistent with that estimated from damped Lyα systems around this redshift.
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