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Tobacco use is common in subjects with schizophrenia (SZ) and has sometimes been associated with better functioning in short-term studies. Only few studies embrace an extensive examination of tobacco influence on clinical, cognitive and therapeutic characteristics in stabilized SZ outpatients. The objective of the present study was to assess the association between cognitive performances and smoking status in SZ subjects.
In total, 1233 SZ participants (73.9% men, mean age 31.5) were included and tested with a comprehensive battery. Tobacco status was self-declared (never-, ex-, or current smokers). Multivariable analyses including principal component analyses (PCA) were used.
In total, 53.7% were smokers with 33.7% of them nicotine-dependent. Multiple factor analysis revealed that current tobacco smoking was associated with impaired general intellectual ability and abstract reasoning (aOR 0.60, 95% IC 0.41–0.88, p = 0.01) and with a lifetime alcohol use disorder (p = 0.026) and a lifetime cannabis use disorder (p < 0.001). Ex- and never-smokers differed for age, mean outcome, cannabis history and medication [ex-smokers being older (p = 0.047), likely to have higher income (p = 0.026), a lifetime cannabis use disorder (p < 0.001) and higher CPZeq doses (p = 0.005)]. Premorbid IQ in the three groups significantly differed with, from higher to lower: ex-smokers, never-smoker, current smokers (all p < 0.001).
This study is the largest to date providing strong evidence that chronic smoking is associated with cognitive impairment in SZ, arguing against the self-medication hypothesis as a contributor to the high prevalence of smoking in SZ. Ex-smokers may also represent a specific subgroup. Longitudinal studies are warranted to determine the developmental impact of tobacco on neurocognition.
Researchers tried to explain the overlap between anxiety and depression by suggesting that some items of self-administered questionnaires were badly selected and that both constructs should rather be considered as multidimensional. Thus, we hypothesise that the Spielberger trait anxiety inventory (TAI) includes items related to depression.
A non-clinical sample of 193 subjects filled out the TAI and the Hospitalised Anxiety–Depression Scale. Factors were postulated on the basis of item content and submitted to confirmatory factor analysis (CFA).
We found five factors: a 10-item anxiety factor containing three factors, a four-item unsuccessfulness factor correlated with the HADS anhedonia factor, and a six-item happiness factor.
The TAI scale encompasses measures of anxiety, depression and well-being. Consequently, the overlap with other measures of depression may result from item selection. This work awaits replication in independent normal and pathological samples.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is underdiagnosed and undertreated in schizophrenia, and has been strongly associated with impaired quality of life.
To determine the prevalence and associated factors of MDD and unremitted MDD in schizophrenia, to compare treated and non-treated MDD.
Participants were included in the FondaMental Expert Centers for Schizophrenia and received a thorough clinical assessment. MDD was defined by a Calgary score ≥6. Non-remitted MDD was defined by current antidepressant treatment (unchanged for >8 weeks) and current Calgary score ≥6.
613 patients were included and 175 (28.5%) were identified with current MDD. MDD has been significantly associated with respectively paranoid delusion (odds ratio 1.8; P = 0.01), avolition (odds ratio 1.8; P = 0.02), blunted affect (odds ratio 1.7; P = 0.04) and benzodiazepine consumption (odds ratio 1.8; P = 0.02). Antidepressants were associated with lower depressive symptoms score (5.4 v. 9.5; P < 0.0001); however, 44.1% of treated patients remained in non-remittance MDD. Nonremitters were found to have more paranoid delusion (odds ratio 2.3; P = 0.009) and more current alcohol misuse disorder (odds ratio 4.8; P = 0.04). No antidepressant class or specific antipsychotic were associated with higher or lower response to antidepressant treatment. MDD was associated with Metabolic syndrome (31.4 v. 20.2%; P = 0.006) but not with increased C-reactive protein.
Antidepressant administration is associated with lower depressive symptom level in patients with schizophrenia and MDD. Paranoid delusions and alcohol misuse disorder should be specifically explored and treated in cases of non-remission under treatment. MetS may play a role in MDD onset and/or maintenance in patients with schizophrenia.
Background: Pathophysiological mechanisms that contribute to neurodegeneration in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) include oxidative stress and inflammation. We conducted a preliminary study to explore these mechanisms, to discuss their link in ALS, and to determine the feasibility of incorporating this combined analysis into current biomarkers research. Methods: We enrolled 10 ALS patients and 10 controls. We measured the activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxyde dismutase (SOD), and the levels of serum total antioxidant status (TAS), malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and glutathione status (e.g. glutathione disulfide, GSSG/reduced glutathione, GSH). We analysed the concentrations of homocysteine, several cytokines, vitamins and metals by standard methods used in routine practice. Results: There was a significant decrease in TAS levels (p=0.027) and increase in 8-OHdG (p=0.014) and MDA (p=0.011) levels in ALS patients. We also observed a significantly higher GSSG/GSH ratio (p=0.022), and IL-6 (p=0.0079) and IL-8 (p=0.009) concentrations in ALS patients. Correlations were found between biological and clinical markers (homosysteine vs. clinical status at diagnosis, p=0.02) and between some biological markers such as IL-6 vs. GSSG/GSH (p=0.045) or SOD activity (p=0.017). Conclusion: We confirmed the systemic alteration of both the redox and the inflammation status in ALS patients, and we observed a link with some clinical parameters. These promising results encourage us to pursue this study with collection of combined oxidative stress and inflammatory markers.
In this article, we investigate numerical schemes for solving
a three component Cahn-Hilliard model. The space discretization is
performed by using
a Galerkin formulation and the finite element method.
Concerning the time discretization,
the main difficulty is to write a scheme ensuring,
at the discrete level, the decrease of the free energy
and thus the stability of the method.
We study three different schemes and prove
existence and convergence theorems. Theoretical results are
illustrated by various numerical examples showing that the new semi-implicit
discretization that we propose seems to be a good compromise between robustness
This study concerns some asymptotic models used to compute the flow outside and inside fractures in a bidimensional porous medium. The flow is governed by the Darcy law both in the fractures and in the porous matrix with large discontinuities in the permeability tensor. These fractures are supposed to have a small thickness with respect to the macroscopic length scale,
so that we can asymptotically reduce them to immersed polygonal fault
interfaces and the model finally consists in a coupling between a
2D elliptic problem and a 1D equation on the sharp interfaces modelling the fractures.
A cell-centered finite volume scheme on general polygonal meshes fitting the interfaces
is derived to solve the set of equations with the additional
differential transmission conditions linking both pressure and normal velocity
jumps through the interfaces.
We prove the convergence of the FV scheme for any set of data and parameters of the models and derive existence and uniqueness of the solution to the asymptotic models proposed.
The models are then numerically experimented for highly or partially immersed fractures.
Some numerical results are reported showing different kinds of flows
in the case of impermeable or partially/highly permeable fractures.
The influence of the variation of the aperture of the fractures is also investigated. The numerical
solutions of the asymptotic models are validated by comparing them to the solutions of the global Darcy model or to some analytic solutions.
In this paper, we propose a new diffuse interface model for the study of three immiscible component incompressible viscous flows. The model is based on the Cahn-Hilliard free energy approach. The originality of our study lies in particular in the choice of the bulk free energy. We show that one must take care of this choice in order for the model to give physically relevant results. More precisely, we give conditions for the model to be well-posed and to satisfy algebraically and dynamically consistency properties with the two-component models. Notice that our model is also able to cope with some total spreading situations.
We propose to take into account the hydrodynamics of the mixture by coupling our ternary Cahn-Hilliard system and the Navier-Stokes equation supplemented by capillary force terms accounting for surface tension effects between the components. Finally, we present some numerical results which illustrate our analysis and which confirm that our model has a better behavior than other possible similar models.
This paper is concerned with the finite volume approximation of the p-Laplacian equation with homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions on rectangular meshes.
A reconstruction of the norm of the gradient on the mesh's interfaces is needed in order to discretize the p-Laplacian operator. We give a detailed description of the possible nine points schemes ensuring that the solution of the resulting finite dimensional nonlinear system exists and is unique. These schemes, called admissible, are locally conservative and in addition derive from the minimization of a strictly convexe and coercive discrete functional.
The convergence rate is analyzed when the solution lies in W2,p. Numerical results are given in order to compare different admissible and non-admissible schemes.
Los investigadores intentaron explicar el solapamiento entre la ansiedad y la depresión proponiendo que algunos elementos de los cuestionarios autoadministrados estaban mal seleccionados y que ambos constructos se deben considerar más bien como muldimensionales. Así, planteamos la hipótesis de que el Inventario de Ansiedad como Rasgo (TAI) de Spielberger incluye elementos relacionados con la depresión.
Una muestra no clínica de 193 sujetos rellenó el TAI y la Escala Hospitalaria de Ansiedad y Depresión. Se postularon factores a partir del contenido de los elementos y se sometieron a análisis factorial confirmatorio (AFC).
Encontramos cinco factores: un factor de ansiedad de 10 elementos que contenía tres factores; un factor de falta de éxi-to que contenía cuatro elementos correlacionado con el factor de anhedonia de la HADS, y un factor de felicidad de seis elementos.
El TAI incluye medidas de ansiedad, depresión y bienestar. Por consiguiente, el solapamiento con otras medidas de depresión puede derivar de la selección de los elementos. Este trabajo aguarda replicación en muestras normales y patológicas independientes.
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