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Limpets (Patella spp.) are marine gastropods that inhabit rocky shores along the coasts of Europe, the Mediterranean, Macaronesia and the north-west coast of Africa. Being considered key species, limpets have an important role regulating algal assemblages in coastal communities. The goal of this work was to evaluate the influence of sea temperature on the respiration rate of four limpet species occurring in mainland Portugal, in line with predictions from the metabolic theory of ecology. The individuals were collected from rocky shores in Portugal and exposed to sea temperatures ranging from 6–28°C for respiration rate assessments. Following the estimation of the relationship between oxygen consumption and temperature the activation energy was calculated. In parallel, low and high thermal thresholds were determined for three of the species. The results indicated that P. ulyssiponensis oxygen consumption increased linearly with sea temperature and the remaining species presented the same tendency. The values of activation energy ranged between 0.33–0.76 eV. For P. ulyssiponensis, the highest activation energy indicated that this species is more sensitive to temperature variations while for the tested temperatures it presented a higher thermal tolerance limit than the other species. Such findings indicate that P. ulyssiponensis is the most susceptible of these species to climate change, in line with the tolerance–plasticity trade-off hypothesis. This work provides a good starting point for understanding the effect of sea temperature on oxygen consumption in Patella spp. and for comprehending sensitivity of limpets to temperature increases under future climate change scenarios.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
Estar en condiciones de poder presentar un panorama general de la Extremadura moderna exige, entre otras cuestiones prioritarias, reconstruir las principales macromagnitudes económicas. Sin embargo, los estudios de la producción agrícola y pecuaria, de la renta de la tierra y de los precios, indispensables en las investigaciones sobre el Antiguo Régimen, presentan especiales dificultades en nuestra región, debido al modo habitual de explotar los derechos decimales, a la compleja realidad territorial —heterogénea y diversa—, a las destrucciones de partes sustantivas de importantes archivos y a la práctica inexistencia de determinados tipos de fuentes. Se requerirán, por consiguiente, años y un gran esfuerzo investigador antes de estar en condiciones de ofrecer una información serial de las principales variables económicas, tan abundante y fiable como de la que ya se dispone para algunas regiones españolas.
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