To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Nitrogen fertilizer and water are two major nutrients required for the optimal production of rice worldwide. The utilization of different irrigation techniques to save water and fertigation to maximize rice production has been the main focus. A field experiment was conducted to explore the responses of 16 rice varieties to different irrigation and nitrogen fertilizer regimes. Two nitrogen treatments, 270 kg ha−1 and 225 kg ha−1 (urea N ≥ 46.4%), and two irrigation regimes, 8.7 t ha−1 and 5.22 t ha−1, were applied three times. Plant height and the soil and plant analyser development (SPAD) values were measured throughout the growth period. The total yield and quality characteristics of the rice varieties were also determined. Based on the yield, the 16 rice varieties were divided into three groups: high yield (I), middle yield (II) and low yield (III) using cluster analysis. A positive correlation was found between the growth period and yield of these 16 rice varieties. In the water-deficient regime, the growth period of the 16 varieties was reduced by 1.68–2.93%. Furthermore, nitrogen- and water-deficient regimes had significant effects on the polishing rate, protein content and taste values of all varieties. At maturity stage under these regimes, plant height and chlorophyll SPAD values were decreased by 1.25–6.05% and 1.60–31.48%, respectively. Deficient nitrogen fertilization, along with appropriate irrigation, is an effective method for the efficient utilization of irrigation and fertilizer resources in rice-growing areas.
Through two in-depth case studies, we compare the approaches of a state-owned enterprise (SOE), Beijing Automotive Industries Holding Co., and a privately owned enterprise (POE), Geely, to acquire and absorb advanced technological knowledge to enhance their innovation capabilities. Each company acquired advanced knowledge from troubled famous Swedish automakers and upgraded their products technologically. Analyzing data mainly collected from secondary sources identifies major differences in approaches and actions at each acquisition step rooted in the type of ownership. We juxtapose these differences with insights from the literature on knowledge acquisition and research on firm ownership. Our findings show that the POE seeks the strategic goal of synergistic technology integration for better innovation and economic performance. In contrast, the SOE pursues national objectives with less regard for market success. This SOE focuses on an independent approach to knowledge absorption and development during their acquisition, whereas the POE emphasizes collaboration in innovation capacity development. This study provides insights into Chinese firms’ positioning on innovation development on the global stage, comparative capitalism, and the particular case of state capitalism in China.
Comprehensive screening of rice (Oryza sativa L. subsp. japonica Kato) germplasm resources with different nitrogen (N) efficiency levels is effective for improving N use efficiency (NUE) while reducing pollution and providing high quality, yield, and efficiency agriculture. We investigated 14 indices of 38 varieties under three N application levels to assess differences among genotypes. Rice varieties were classified for screening and identifying N efficient. Descriptive statistical analysis results indicated significant differences in relative yield, and also in NUE indices (agronomic utilization rate and partial productivity of N fertilizer). The genotype main effects and genotype–environment interaction effects (GGE) biplot analysis was used to evaluate suitable varieties, compare the stable and high yield capabilities of different varieties, find the ideal variety, and describe the correlation, discrimination and representativeness of the indices under different N application levels. Descriptive statistical, discrimitiveness and representativeness and factor analysis were used to select indices, in which the panicle number per plant and soil and plant analyzer development (SPAD) value were the key indices for evaluation and identification. Heatmap and hierarchical cluster analysis based on the average value of evaluation indices, and scatter plot based on the comprehensive value of N efficiency (P) according to formula showed that all varieties could be divided into five types under different N treatments. Our findings work toward developing N efficient rice varieties to improve NUE, reduce N fertilizer application and thus N waste, consequently mitigating the effects of rice production on the environment to ensure food security and sustainable agricultural development.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.