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In this paper, we design and fabricate dual-tunable waveguides in a two-dimensional periodic plate with threaded holes. Dual tunability is realized by using rods held with nuts as well as assembly prestress of the nuts. A straight waveguide, a bent waveguide, and a wave splitter are designed by changing the distribution of rods and nuts in different circuits. The experimental and numerical results show that the frequencies of guided waves can be tuned by the assembly prestress. By increasing the amount of prestress, the frequency range of the passing band can be shifted upward. Confinements, guiding, and splitting of Lamb waves are clearly observed in both experimental measurements and numerical simulations. This work is essential for the practical design of reconfigurable phononic devices.
The lift generation mechanism of leading-edge vortex (LEV) in the case of a pitching and plunging plate is studied using an experimental approach and the improved discrete vortex method in this research. A formation condition of the secondary structure is introduced into the traditional discrete vortex method to compensate for the shortcomings in the simulation of the viscous effect between LEV and plate. The simulation of the secondary structure helps the improved method perform better in flow-field reconstruction and lift prediction. Accordingly, the lift generation mechanism of the LEV and influence of the secondary structure are studied. The lift contribution of the vortex structure is isolated and linearly decomposed into two parts according to sources of flow field: the quasi-potential flow part and the vortex-induced flow part. The vortex lift is defined as the lift contribution of the vortex structure in vortex-induced flow, which gives a new insight into the production of lift of the LEV. The lift generation mechanism through the discrete vortex method is verified and extended in viscous flow through experimental measurement. In addition, a vortex lift indicator based on the reverse flow of the LEV is proposed to examine the change of vortex lift in experimental measurement. The flow mechanism for the decline of vortex lift for different maximum effective angles of attack is revealed based on the vortex lift indicator. Furthermore, for the LEV-dominating flow, the indicator can also be applied in estimating the maximum value and corresponding critical time of overall lift in experiments.
This article aims to analyze the relationship between user characteristics on social networks and influenza.
Three specific research questions are investigated: (1) we classify Weibo updates to recognize influenza-related information based on machine learning algorithms and propose a quantitative model for influenza susceptibility in social networks; (2) we adopt in-degree indicator from complex networks theory as social media status to verify its coefficient correlation with influenza susceptibility; (3) we also apply the LDA topic model to explore users’ physical condition from Weibo to further calculate its coefficient correlation with influenza susceptibility. From the perspective of social networking status, we analyze and extract influenza-related information from social media, with many advantages including efficiency, low cost, and real time.
We find a moderate negative correlation between the susceptibility of users to influenza and social network status, while there is a significant positive correlation between physical condition and susceptibility to influenza.
Our findings reveal the laws behind the phenomenon of online disease transmission, and providing important evidence for analyzing, predicting, and preventing disease transmission. Also, this study provides theoretical and methodological underpinnings for further exploration and measurement of more factors associated with infection control and public health from social networks.
With advancements in cancer treatments, the survival rates of patients with their first primary cancer (FPC) have increased, resulting in a rise in the number of patients with second primary cancer (SPC). However, there has been no assessment on the incidence of suicide among patients with SPC. This study assessed the occurrence of suicide among patients with SPC and compared them with that in patients with FPC.
This was a retrospective, population-based cohort study that followed patients with FPC and SPC diagnosed from the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 17 registries database between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2019.
For patients with SPC, an age of 85+ years at diagnosis was associated with a higher incidence of suicide death (HR, 1.727; 95% CI, 1.075–2.774), while the suicide death was not considerably different in the chemotherapy group (P > 0.05). Female genital system cancers (HR, 3.042; 95% CI, 1.819–6.361) accounted for the highest suicide death among patients with SPC. The suicide death distribution of patients with SPC over time indicated that suicide events mainly occurred within 5 to 15 years of diagnosis. Compared with patients with FPC, patients with SPC in general had a lower risk of suicide, but increased year by year.
The risk of suicide was reduced in patients with SPC compared with patients with FPC, but increased year by year. Therefore, oncologists and related health professionals need to provide continuous psychological support to reduce the incidence of suicide. The highest suicide death was found among patients with female genital system cancer.
A continuous-wave (CW) single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) Raman laser at 1240 nm with power of up to 20.6 W was demonstrated in a free-running diamond Raman oscillator without any axial-mode selection elements. The SLM operation was achieved due to the spatial-hole-burning free nature of Raman gain and was maintained at the highest available pump power by suppressing the parasitic stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS). A folded-cavity design was employed for reducing the perturbing effect of resonances at the pump frequency. At a pump power of 69 W, the maximum Stokes output reached 20.6 W, corresponding to a 30% optical-to-optical conversion efficiency from 1064 to 1240 nm. The result shows that parasitic SBS is the main physical process disturbing the SLM operation of Raman oscillator at higher power. In addition, for the first time, the spectral linewidth of a CW SLM diamond Raman laser was resolved using the long-delayed self-heterodyne interferometric method, which is 105 kHz at 20 W.
SARS-CoV-2 rapidly spreads among humans via social networks, with social mixing and network characteristics potentially facilitating transmission. However, limited data on topological structural features has hindered in-depth studies. Existing research is based on snapshot analyses, preventing temporal investigations of network changes. Comparing network characteristics over time offers additional insights into transmission dynamics. We examined confirmed COVID-19 patients from an eastern Chinese province, analyzing social mixing and network characteristics using transmission network topology before and after widespread interventions. Between the two time periods, the percentage of singleton networks increased from 38.9$ \% $ to 62.8$ \% $$ (p<0.001) $; the average shortest path length decreased from 1.53 to 1.14 $ (p<0.001) $; the average betweenness reduced from 0.65 to 0.11$ (p<0.001) $; the average cluster size dropped from 4.05 to 2.72 $ (p=0.004) $; and the out-degree had a slight but nonsignificant decline from 0.75 to 0.63 $ (p=0.099). $ Results show that nonpharmaceutical interventions effectively disrupted transmission networks, preventing further disease spread. Additionally, we found that the networks’ dynamic structure provided more information than solely examining infection curves after applying descriptive and agent-based modeling approaches. In summary, we investigated social mixing and network characteristics of COVID-19 patients during different pandemic stages, revealing transmission network heterogeneities.
The incidence of adolescent depressive disorder is globally skyrocketing in recent decades, albeit the causes and the decision deficits depression incurs has yet to be well-examined. With an instrumental learning task, the aim of the current study is to investigate the extent to which learning behavior deviates from that observed in healthy adolescent controls and track the underlying mechanistic channel for such a deviation.
We recruited a group of adolescents with major depression and age-matched healthy control subjects to carry out the learning task with either gain or loss outcome and applied a reinforcement learning model that dissociates valence (positive v. negative) of reward prediction error and selection (chosen v. unchosen).
The results demonstrated that adolescent depressive patients performed significantly less well than the control group. Learning rates suggested that the optimistic bias that overall characterizes healthy adolescent subjects was absent for the depressive adolescent patients. Moreover, depressed adolescents exhibited an increased pessimistic bias for the counterfactual outcome. Lastly, individual difference analysis suggested that these observed biases, which significantly deviated from that observed in normal controls, were linked with the severity of depressive symoptoms as measured by HAMD scores.
By leveraging an incentivized instrumental learning task with computational modeling within a reinforcement learning framework, the current study reveals a mechanistic decision-making deficit in adolescent depressive disorder. These findings, which have implications for the identification of behavioral markers in depression, could support the clinical evaluation, including both diagnosis and prognosis of this disorder.
In the Late Neoarchaean, the lithosphere of the North China Craton (NCC) experienced a strong extensional event, which is of great significance for understanding the evolution of the continental crust in the Precambrian. In this study, a suite of mafic dykes from Shandong province in the northeastern NCC were investigated to determine the nature, timing and source of rift-related magma activities using zircon U–Pb data, whole-rock geochemistry and Nd–Hf isotopes. Zircon U–Pb dating of four dolerites by laser ablation – inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) yielded weighted mean 207Pb/206Pb ages in the range 2509 ± 6.1 to 2537 ± 6.2 Ma (2σ, 95 % confidence interval). The mafic dykes are classified as alkaline rocks based on their K2O + Na2O contents (6.78–7.21 wt %) and belong to the shoshonitic series according to their K2O contents (3.23–3.36 wt %). The dolerites show low concentrations of light rare earth elements ((La/Yb)N between 7.17 and 8.55), positive Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* between 1.12 and 1.27), positive Ba, K, Pb, Sr, Eu, Dy and Lu anomalies, and depleted U, Nb, Pr, Ta, P, Nd and Ti anomalies. The dykes are characterized by low initial (87Sr/86Sr)i (∼0.6969), positive εNd(t) values (0.2–0.8) and εHf(t) values (0.5–8.6) and relatively old mean Nd and Hf model age (2.73 Ga). Collectively, the data suggest that the mafic dykes were derived from the partial melting (10–20 %) of an isotope-depleted garnet–lherzolite mantle source that was hybridized through interaction with subducted lower crustal material. The parental magmas of these dykes underwent a certain number of crustal contaminations during magma ascent. The mafic magmatism represented in the form of the dyke swarms is considered to be a response to widespread lithospheric extension which affected the NCC at c. 2.5 Ga during the Neoarchaean.
My 5 moments (M5M) was used less frequently among cleaning staff members, suggesting that a poor compliance score in this group may not indicate deficient handwashing. This quasi-experimental study compared hand hygiene compliance (HHC), hand hygiene (HH) moments, and HH time distribution in the control group (no HH intervention; n = 21), case group 1 (normal M5M intervention; n = 26), case group 2 (extensive novel six moments (NSM) training; n = 24), and case group 3 (refined NSM training; n = 18). The intervention’s effect was evaluated after 3 months. The HHC gap among the four groups gradually increased in the second intervention month (control group, 31.43%; case group 1, 38.74%; case group 2, 40.19%; case group 3, 52.21%; p < 0.05). After the intervention period, the HHC of case groups 2 and 3 improved significantly from the baseline (23.85% vs. 59.22%, 27.41% vs. 83.62%, respectively; p < 0.05). ‘After transferring medical waste from the site’ had the highest HHC in case group 3, 90.72% (95% confidence interval, 0.1926–0.3967). HH peak hours were from 6 AM to 9 AM and 2 PM to 3 PM. The study showed that the implementation of an NSM practice can serve as an HHC monitoring indicator and direct relevant training interventions to improve HH among hospital cleaning staff.
Genetic approaches are increasingly advantageous in characterizing treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS). We aimed to identify TRS-associated functional brain proteins, providing a potential pathway for improving psychiatric classification and developing better-tailored therapeutic targets.
TRS-related proteome-wide association studies (PWAS) were conducted on genome-wide association studies (GWAS) from CLOZUK and the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC), which provided TRS individuals (n = 10,501) and non-TRS individuals (n = 20,325), respectively. The reference datasets for the human brain proteome were obtained from ROS/MAP and Banner, with 8,356 and 11,518 proteins collected, respectively. We then performed colocalization analysis and functional enrichment analysis to further explore the biological functions of the proteins identified by PWAS.
In PWAS, two statistically significant proteins were identified using the ROS/MAP and then replicated using the Banner reference dataset, including CPT2 (PPWAS-ROS/MAP = 4.15 × 10−2 and PPWAS-Banner = 3.38 × 10−3) and APOL2 (PPWAS-ROS/MAP = 4.49 × 10−3 and PPWAS-Banner = 8.26 × 10−3). Colocalization analysis identified three variants that were causally related to protein expression in the human brain, including CCDC91 (PP4 = 0.981), PRDX1 (PP4 = 0.894), and WARS2 (PP4 = 0.757). We extended PWAS results from gene-based analysis to pathway-based analysis, identifying 14 gene ontology (GO) terms and the only candidate pathway for TRS, metabolic pathways (all P < 0.05).
Our results identified two protein biomarkers, and cautiously support that the pathological mechanism of TRS is linked to lipid oxidation and inflammation, where mitochondria-related functions may play a role.
This paper presents an experimental study on how both variable solid volume fractions and aspect ratios (length/width) of a centre-channel rectangular porous patch under aligned configuration of rigid and emergent stems impact the flow behaviour and wake structure. This study forms an essential extension to the existing fundamentals and knowledge on this topic. Through rigorous experimental tests by velocity measurement and dye visualization, the aspect ratio, rarely addressed before, is confirmed to play a critical role. Vortex street, unable to be triggered under a low solid volume fraction, however, can be generated by elongating the patch (increasing the aspect ratio). The key reason is that patch elongation promotes the generation of the wake vortex street by producing a relatively high transverse velocity gradient in the wake region. Meanwhile, Kelvin–Helmholtz vortex streets are triggered along the two patch lateral edges, re-increasing the in-patch velocity and imposing contributions to the wake vortex streets generation. By scaling the characteristic velocity (at the wake vortex initiation position and patch trailing edge) and solid volume fraction with the patch aspect ratio, three non-dimensional threshold maps can be established to express the combined effects of the solid volume fraction and aspect ratio on the initiation of the wake vortex street. They could be alternatively used for theoretical analysis and implementation on wake formation and structure subject to parameter availability.
The phase summation effect in sum-frequency mixing process is utilized to avoid a nonlinearity obstacle in the power scaling of single-frequency visible or ultraviolet lasers. Two single-frequency fundamental lasers are spectrally broadened by phase modulation to suppress stimulated Brillouin scattering in fiber amplifier and achieve higher power. After sum-frequency mixing in a nonlinear optical crystal, the upconverted laser returns to single frequency due to phase summation, when the phase modulations on two fundamental lasers have a similar amplitude but opposite sign. The method was experimentally proved in a Raman fiber amplifier-based laser system, which generated a power-scalable sideband-free single-frequency 590 nm laser. The proposal manifests the importance of phase operation in wave-mixing processes for precision laser technology.
Raman spectroscopic analysis was performed on columbite-(Mn) samples from a variety of previously studied rare-element pegmatites in Xinjiang, China, including the Jing'erquan No. 1 spodumene-subtype, Dakalasu No. 1 beryl–columbite-subtype and Kalu'an spodumene-subtype pegmatites, to quantify the relationship between the degree of metamictisation of columbite and Raman spectra. For all of the analysed columbites-(Mn), the position (p) and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the strongest band, A1g vibration mode related to the Nb/Ta–O bond, in the Raman spectra have a negative correlation. Combined with previously determined U–Pb isotopic data and major–minor-element data for the columbites-(Mn), the degree of metamictisation was quantified using the alpha-decay dose (D) and displacement per atom (dpa), both of which were corrected for effects caused by annealing. The results demonstrate that the columbite-(Mn) from Jing'erquan and Kalu'an are very crystalline, whereas those from Dakalasu are transitional between crystalline and amorphous stages. The main factor influencing the key parameters, i.e. band position and FWHM, of the strongest Raman band of columbite-(Mn) is metamictisation caused by radiation damage, whereas composition and crystal orientation have limited influence. A set of equations are established to quantify the degree of metamictisation of columbite using the band position and the full width at half maximum: FWHM = 8.309 × ln(aD) + 30.11 (R2 = 0.9861); p = –5.187 × ln(aD) + 867.09 (R2 = 0.966); FWHM = 8.1453 × ln(adpa) + 48.425 (R2 = 0.9822); and p = –5.078 × ln(adpa) + 855.67 (R2 = 0.9594).
High-power continuous-wave single-frequency Er-doped fiber amplifiers at 1560 nm by in-band and core pumping of a 1480 nm Raman fiber laser are investigated in detail. Both co- and counter-pumping configurations are studied experimentally. Up to 59.1 W output and 90% efficiency were obtained in the fundamental mode and linear polarization in the co-pumped case, while less power and efficiency were achieved in the counter-pumped setup for additional loss. The amplifier performs indistinguishably in terms of laser linewidth and relative intensity noise in the frequency range up to 10 MHz for both configurations. However, the spectral pedestal is raised in co-pumping, caused by cross-phase modulation between the pump and signal laser, which is observed and analyzed for the first time. Nevertheless, the spectral pedestal is 34.9 dB below the peak, which has a negligible effect for most applications.
The study aims to systematically review all articles on the economic evaluation (EE) of coronary stenting, to critically assess the reporting quality, and to summarize the results.
A systematic search was undertaken through seven databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, CNKI, Wanfang data, Vip data and SinoMed.) from inception until March 2021, to identify economic evaluation articles comparing coronary stenting with other therapies, or among different stenting procedures. After screening articles and extracting data independently, we summarized methods, contents, and outcomes of the included articles and appraised their methodological quality using the CHEERS (Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards) checklists. Then, the literature scores were standardized as a proportion of the total score, and stepwise multiple regression was constructed to verify the factors that might influence the quality of literature.
Of the 3,622 publications identified, 59 articles were included in this review. There were 33 cost-effectiveness studies and 26 were cost-utility studies. The quality of the reports varied between studies, with a standardized mean score of 0.76 (0.40-0.98). According to the Cheers checklist, “Introduction” had the lowest overall score (0.53), with many articles deficient in the description of the study’s perspective; “Discussion” had the highest overall score (0.86), with nearly three-quarters of the articles reporting the full content; “Title and abstract”, “Methods”, “Results”, and “Other” scored 0.71, 0.78, 0.74 and 0.66, respectively. According to the results of the stepwise multiple regression model, “Published year”, “National type”, and “Type of economic analysis” research were significantly associated with the quality of literature.
The quality of current research reports on the economics of coronary stenting is generally satisfactory, but there is potential for improvement and high quality reports can provide evidence to support decision making for policy makers.
An experimental investigation of the stereocamera's systematic error is carried out to optimize three-dimensional (3-D) dust observation on the HL-2A tokamak. It is found that a larger 3-D region occupied by all calibration points is able to reduce the 3-D reconstruction systematic error of the stereocamera. In addition, the 3-D reconstruction is the most accurate around the region where the calibration points are located. Based on these experimental results, the design of the stereocamera on the HL-2A tokamak is presented, and a set of practical procedures to optimize the 3-D reconstruction accuracy of the stereocamera are proposed.