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The lift generation mechanism of leading-edge vortex (LEV) in the case of a pitching and plunging plate is studied using an experimental approach and the improved discrete vortex method in this research. A formation condition of the secondary structure is introduced into the traditional discrete vortex method to compensate for the shortcomings in the simulation of the viscous effect between LEV and plate. The simulation of the secondary structure helps the improved method perform better in flow-field reconstruction and lift prediction. Accordingly, the lift generation mechanism of the LEV and influence of the secondary structure are studied. The lift contribution of the vortex structure is isolated and linearly decomposed into two parts according to sources of flow field: the quasi-potential flow part and the vortex-induced flow part. The vortex lift is defined as the lift contribution of the vortex structure in vortex-induced flow, which gives a new insight into the production of lift of the LEV. The lift generation mechanism through the discrete vortex method is verified and extended in viscous flow through experimental measurement. In addition, a vortex lift indicator based on the reverse flow of the LEV is proposed to examine the change of vortex lift in experimental measurement. The flow mechanism for the decline of vortex lift for different maximum effective angles of attack is revealed based on the vortex lift indicator. Furthermore, for the LEV-dominating flow, the indicator can also be applied in estimating the maximum value and corresponding critical time of overall lift in experiments.
A highly compressive effect would suppress the mixing of the shear layer in a convex wall jet. The spanwise distributed protrusions at the nozzle lip are employed to achieve mixing enhancement in this study. The mixing characteristics and enhancement mechanisms are numerically investigated by the delayed detached-eddy simulation method based on the two-equation shear-stress transport model. A widely applicable flow spatiotemporal analysis method, called proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), is used to gain further insight into the dynamical behaviours of the flow instability mode. The results reveal that the centrifugal effect maintains and amplifies the initial perturbations induced by the spanwise distributed heterogeneities, resulting in forced streamwise vortices. The instabilities induced by the streamwise vortices significantly increase the growth rate of the jet half-width and the shear layer vorticity thickness. The spanwise wavelength of the streamwise vortices is consistent with the spanwise distributed forced excitation. In addition, the spanwise meandering motion of the streamwise vortices is observed, which is usually associated with the streamwise travelling wave. This is further confirmed by the POD analysis of the spanwise velocity fluctuation in both stream-radial and stream-span sections. Also, the spatial distributions of the POD modes with the highest energy provide information on the secondary instability modes. Both sinuous and varicose types of disturbances are observed in the unforced jet, whereas the forced jet seems to be dominated by the sinuous type instability, which is more easily excited than the varicose type instability. Moreover, the turbulence intensity in the forced jet is also significantly enhanced as expected due to the earlier and stronger streamwise vortices and associated instabilities. The enhanced turbulent characteristics of the highly compressible condition tend to be isotropic, whereas in the unforced jet, it is anisotropic due to the strong compressibility suppressing the spanwise turbulent fluctuations.
With advancements in cancer treatments, the survival rates of patients with their first primary cancer (FPC) have increased, resulting in a rise in the number of patients with second primary cancer (SPC). However, there has been no assessment on the incidence of suicide among patients with SPC. This study assessed the occurrence of suicide among patients with SPC and compared them with that in patients with FPC.
This was a retrospective, population-based cohort study that followed patients with FPC and SPC diagnosed from the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 17 registries database between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2019.
For patients with SPC, an age of 85+ years at diagnosis was associated with a higher incidence of suicide death (HR, 1.727; 95% CI, 1.075–2.774), while the suicide death was not considerably different in the chemotherapy group (P > 0.05). Female genital system cancers (HR, 3.042; 95% CI, 1.819–6.361) accounted for the highest suicide death among patients with SPC. The suicide death distribution of patients with SPC over time indicated that suicide events mainly occurred within 5 to 15 years of diagnosis. Compared with patients with FPC, patients with SPC in general had a lower risk of suicide, but increased year by year.
The risk of suicide was reduced in patients with SPC compared with patients with FPC, but increased year by year. Therefore, oncologists and related health professionals need to provide continuous psychological support to reduce the incidence of suicide. The highest suicide death was found among patients with female genital system cancer.
Choline plays a crucial role in hepatic lipid homeostasis by acting as a major methyl-group donor. However, despite this well-accepted fact, no study has yet explored how choline’s methyl-donor function contributes to preventing hepatic lipid dysregulation. Moreover, the potential regulatory role of Ire-1α, an ER-transmembrane transducer for the unfolded protein response (UPRer), in choline-mediated hepatic lipid homeostasis remains unexplored. Thus, this study investigated the mechanism by which choline prevents hepatic lipid dysregulation, focusing on its role as a methyl-donor and the involvement of Ire-1α in this process. To this end, a model animal for lipid metabolism, yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) were fed two different diets (adequate or deficient choline diets) in vivo for 10 weeks. The key findings of studies are as follows: 1. Dietary choline, upregulated selected lipolytic and fatty acid β-oxidation transcripts promoting hepatic lipid homeostasis. 2. Dietary choline ameliorated UPRer and prevented hepatic lipid dysregulation mainly through ire-1α signalling, not perk or atf-6α signalling. 3. Choline inhibited the transcriptional expression level of ire-1α by activating site-specific DNA methylations in the promoter of ire-1α. 4. Choline-mediated ire-1α methylations reduced Ire-1α/Fas interactions, thereby further inhibiting Fas activity and reducing lipid droplet deposition. These results offer a novel insight into the direct and indirect regulation of choline on lipid metabolism genes and suggests a potential crosstalk between ire-1α signalling and choline-deficiency-induced hepatic lipid dysregulation, highlighting the critical contribution of choline as a methyl-donor in maintaining hepatic lipid homeostasis.
A delayed reaction-diffusion system with free boundaries is investigated in this paper to understand how the bacteria spread spatially to larger area from the initial infected habitat. Under the assumptions that the nonlinearities are of monostable type and the initial values satisfy some compatible condition, we show that the free boundary problem is well-posed and discuss the long-time behaviour of solution (including spreading and vanishing) in terms of the spatial-temporal risk index. Furthermore, to determine the spreading speed of free boundaries when spreading occurs, we first study the distribution of roots of a transcendental equation containing a polynomial of degree four and then establish the existence and uniqueness of monotone solution to a delay-induced nonlocal semi-wave problem by employing the approximation method, lower-upper solutions technique and Schauder fixed point theorem. It is shown that time delays slow down the spreading of bacteria.
We present the third data release from the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project. The release contains observations of 32 pulsars obtained using the 64-m Parkes “Murriyang” radio telescope. The data span is up to 18 years with a typical cadence of 3 weeks. This data release is formed by combining an updated version of our second data release with ∼ 3 years of more recent data primarily obtained using an ultra-wide-bandwidth receiver system that operates between 704 and 4032 MHz. We provide calibrated pulse profiles, flux-density dynamic spectra, pulse times of arrival, and initial pulsar timing models. We describe methods for processing such wide-bandwidth observations, and compare this data release with our previous release.
Although ethanol treatment is widely used to activate oocytes, the underlying mechanisms are largely unclear. Roles of intracellular calcium stores and extracellular calcium in ethanol-induced activation (EIA) of oocytes remain to be verified, and whether calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is involved in EIA is unknown. This study showed that calcium-free ageing (CFA) in vitro significantly decreased intracellular stored calcium (sCa) and CaSR expression, and impaired EIA, spindle/chromosome morphology and developmental potential of mouse oocytes. Although EIA in oocytes with full sCa after ageing with calcium does not require calcium influx, calcium influx is essential for EIA of oocytes with reduced sCa after CFA. Furthermore, the extremely low EIA rate in oocytes with CFA-downregulated CaSR expression and the fact that inhibiting CaSR significantly decreased the EIA of oocytes with a full complement of CaSR suggest that CaSR played a significant role in the EIA of ageing oocytes. In conclusion, CFA impaired EIA and the developmental potential of mouse oocytes by decreasing sCa and downregulating CaSR expression. Because mouse oocytes routinely treated for activation (18 h post hCG) are equipped with a full sCa complement and CaSR, the present results suggest that, while calcium influx is not essential, CaSR is required for the EIA of oocytes.
The incidence of adolescent depressive disorder is globally skyrocketing in recent decades, albeit the causes and the decision deficits depression incurs has yet to be well-examined. With an instrumental learning task, the aim of the current study is to investigate the extent to which learning behavior deviates from that observed in healthy adolescent controls and track the underlying mechanistic channel for such a deviation.
We recruited a group of adolescents with major depression and age-matched healthy control subjects to carry out the learning task with either gain or loss outcome and applied a reinforcement learning model that dissociates valence (positive v. negative) of reward prediction error and selection (chosen v. unchosen).
The results demonstrated that adolescent depressive patients performed significantly less well than the control group. Learning rates suggested that the optimistic bias that overall characterizes healthy adolescent subjects was absent for the depressive adolescent patients. Moreover, depressed adolescents exhibited an increased pessimistic bias for the counterfactual outcome. Lastly, individual difference analysis suggested that these observed biases, which significantly deviated from that observed in normal controls, were linked with the severity of depressive symoptoms as measured by HAMD scores.
By leveraging an incentivized instrumental learning task with computational modeling within a reinforcement learning framework, the current study reveals a mechanistic decision-making deficit in adolescent depressive disorder. These findings, which have implications for the identification of behavioral markers in depression, could support the clinical evaluation, including both diagnosis and prognosis of this disorder.
My 5 moments (M5M) was used less frequently among cleaning staff members, suggesting that a poor compliance score in this group may not indicate deficient handwashing. This quasi-experimental study compared hand hygiene compliance (HHC), hand hygiene (HH) moments, and HH time distribution in the control group (no HH intervention; n = 21), case group 1 (normal M5M intervention; n = 26), case group 2 (extensive novel six moments (NSM) training; n = 24), and case group 3 (refined NSM training; n = 18). The intervention’s effect was evaluated after 3 months. The HHC gap among the four groups gradually increased in the second intervention month (control group, 31.43%; case group 1, 38.74%; case group 2, 40.19%; case group 3, 52.21%; p < 0.05). After the intervention period, the HHC of case groups 2 and 3 improved significantly from the baseline (23.85% vs. 59.22%, 27.41% vs. 83.62%, respectively; p < 0.05). ‘After transferring medical waste from the site’ had the highest HHC in case group 3, 90.72% (95% confidence interval, 0.1926–0.3967). HH peak hours were from 6 AM to 9 AM and 2 PM to 3 PM. The study showed that the implementation of an NSM practice can serve as an HHC monitoring indicator and direct relevant training interventions to improve HH among hospital cleaning staff.
Horses and chariots played a crucial social, cultural and military role in the emergence and development of early states in China. Little research, however, has explored the life histories of individual chariot horses or assessed their role as working animals. Here, the authors present a detailed zooarchaeological and palaeopathological study of eight adult male horses, used for pulling chariots, recovered from a single chariot-horse pit at the burial site of Shijia in north-western China. The characterisation of key osteological differences between chariot horses and ridden horses is offered as a contribution to the toolkit available for the archaeological investigation of human-horse interactions around the globe.
In this study, aluminium fluoride trihydrate (AlF3⋅3H2O) was used to inhibit the sintering of calcined coal-series kaolin (CCSK). In addition, the oil absorption properties of CCSK were studied. The particle-size distribution, specific surface area and porosity of the samples were investigated as a function of calcination temperature and the addition of AlF3⋅3H2O. Moreover, the ability of AlF3⋅3H2O to improve the oil absorption of CCSK was explored. The morphology, structure and phase composition of the specimens were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The phase transition during heating of the samples was studied using thermogravimetric analysis. The preparation with 10 wt.% AlF3⋅3H2O had the optimal sintering inhibition effect on CCSK at 1000°C. The release of SiF4 gas during heating and the formation of mullite whiskers on the particle surface caused by AlF3⋅3H2O moderated the formation of molten-phase liquid bridges between particles and inhibited sintering of the raw material powder. Furthermore, the formation of submicron mullite whiskers on the surface of the CCSK particles enhanced the oil-absorption properties of the sample significantly.
Trematodes of the genus Ogmocotyle are intestinal flukes that can infect a variety of definitive hosts, resulting in significant economic losses worldwide. However, there are few studies on molecular data of these trematodes. In this study, the mitochondrial (mt) genome of Ogmocotyle ailuri isolated from red panda (Ailurus fulgens) was determined and compared with those from Pronocephalata to investigate the mt genome content, genetic distance, gene rearrangements and phylogeny. The complete mt genome of O. ailuri is a typical closed circular molecule of 14 642 base pairs, comprising 12 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 2 non-coding regions. All genes are transcribed in the same direction. In addition, 23 intergenic spacers and 2 locations with gene overlaps were determined. Sequence identities and sliding window analysis indicated that cox1 is the most conserved gene among 12 PCGs in O. ailuri mt genome. The sequenced mt genomes of the 48 Plagiorchiida trematodes showed 5 types of gene arrangement based on all mt genome genes, with the gene arrangement of O. ailuri being type I. Phylogenetic analysis using concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 PCGs revealed that O. ailuri was closer to Ogmocotyle sikae than to Notocotylus intestinalis. These data enhance the Ogmocotyle mt genome database and provide molecular resources for further studies of Pronocephalata taxonomy, population genetics and systematics.
The timely identification of the high-risk groups for nosocomial infections (NIs) plays a vital role in its prevention and control. Therefore, it is crucial to investigate whether the ABO blood group is a risk factor for NI. In this study, patients with NI and non-infection were matched by the propensity score matching method and a logistic regression model was used to analyse the matched datasets. The study found that patients with the B&AB blood group were susceptible to Escherichia coli (OR = 1.783, p = 0.039); the A blood group were susceptible to Staphylococcus aureus (OR = 2.539, p = 0.019) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (OR = 5.724, p = 0.003); the A&AB blood group were susceptible to Pseudomonas aeruginosa (OR = 4.061, p = 0.008); the AB blood group were vulnerable to urinary tract infection (OR = 13.672, p = 0.019); the B blood group were susceptible to skin and soft tissue infection (OR = 2.418, p = 0.016); and the B&AB blood group were vulnerable to deep incision infection (OR = 4.243, p = 0.043). Summarily, the patient’s blood group is vital for identifying high-risk groups for NIs and developing targeted prevention and control measures for NIs.
Raman spectroscopic analysis was performed on columbite-(Mn) samples from a variety of previously studied rare-element pegmatites in Xinjiang, China, including the Jing'erquan No. 1 spodumene-subtype, Dakalasu No. 1 beryl–columbite-subtype and Kalu'an spodumene-subtype pegmatites, to quantify the relationship between the degree of metamictisation of columbite and Raman spectra. For all of the analysed columbites-(Mn), the position (p) and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the strongest band, A1g vibration mode related to the Nb/Ta–O bond, in the Raman spectra have a negative correlation. Combined with previously determined U–Pb isotopic data and major–minor-element data for the columbites-(Mn), the degree of metamictisation was quantified using the alpha-decay dose (D) and displacement per atom (dpa), both of which were corrected for effects caused by annealing. The results demonstrate that the columbite-(Mn) from Jing'erquan and Kalu'an are very crystalline, whereas those from Dakalasu are transitional between crystalline and amorphous stages. The main factor influencing the key parameters, i.e. band position and FWHM, of the strongest Raman band of columbite-(Mn) is metamictisation caused by radiation damage, whereas composition and crystal orientation have limited influence. A set of equations are established to quantify the degree of metamictisation of columbite using the band position and the full width at half maximum: FWHM = 8.309 × ln(aD) + 30.11 (R2 = 0.9861); p = –5.187 × ln(aD) + 867.09 (R2 = 0.966); FWHM = 8.1453 × ln(adpa) + 48.425 (R2 = 0.9822); and p = –5.078 × ln(adpa) + 855.67 (R2 = 0.9594).
To explore the effect of yield stress on the secondary breakup of gel drops, experimental and theoretical investigations are carried out by employing a high-speed camera. A unique hemline-type breakup, as a modified behaviour of sheet-thinning breakup, occurs when the air velocity increases to a high region. The edges of the drops constantly deform into thin membranes when the high-velocity air skims over the gel drops. These membranes vibrate vertically, and breaking points occur at high amplitudes, causing the formation of reticular fragments. The results of linear stability analysis indicated that the yield stress of the gel drops has an influence on the formation and breakup of the gel membranes. The breakup regime map and breakup times are also studied.
A single-shot measurement of electron emittance was experimentally accomplished using a focused transfer line with a dipole. The betatron phase of electrons based on laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) is energy dependent owing to the coupling of the longitudinal acceleration field and the transverse focusing (defocusing) field in the bubble. The phase space presents slice information after phase compensation relative to the center energy. Fitting the transverse size of the electron beam at different energy slices in the energy spectrum measured 0.27 mm mrad in the experiment. The diagnosis of slice emittance facilitates local electron quality manipulation, which is important for the development of LWFA-based free electron lasers. The quasi-3D particle-in-cell simulations matched the experimental results and analysis well.
The study aimed to explore the relationships of skeletal muscle mass with disease severity in metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) patients with different methods. Consecutive subjects undergoing bioelectrical impedance analysis were included. The steatosis grade and liver fibrosis were evaluated by MRI-derived proton density fat fraction and two-dimensional shear wave elastography. The appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) was adjusted by height2 (ASM/H2), weight (ASM/W) and BMI (ASM/BMI). Overall, 2223 subjects (50·5 %, MAFLD; 46·9 %, male) were included, with the mean age 37·4 ± 10·6 years. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the subjects with the lowest quartile (Q1) of ASM/W or ASM/BMI had higher risk ratios for MAFLD (OR (95 % CI) in male: 2·57 (1·35, 4·89), 2·11(1·22, 3·64); in female: 4·85 (2·33, 10·01), 4·81 (2·52, 9·16), all P < 0·05, all for Q1 v. Q4). The MAFLD patients with lower quartiles of ASM/W had the higher risk OR for insulin resistance (IR), both in male and female (2·14 (1·16, 3·97), 4·26 (1·29, 14·02) for Q4 v. Q1, both P < 0·05). While the significant OR were not observed when ASM/H2 and ASM/BMI were used. There were significant dose-dependent associations between decreased ASM/W as well as ASM/BMI and moderate–severe steatosis (2·85(1·54, 5·29), 1·90(1·09, 3·31), both P < 0·05) in male MAFLD patients. In conclusion, ASM/W is superior to ASM/H2 and ASM/BMI in predicting the degree of MAFLD. A lower ASM/W is associated with IR and moderate–severe steatosis in non-elderly male MAFLD.
In vitro rearing of honey bee larvae is ideal for bioassay studies; no honey bee stable cell lines are available. Inconsistency of internal development staging of reared larvae and a susceptibility to contamination are common problems encountered. Standardized protocols on rearing larvae in vitro to make the larvae growth and development more similar to that of natural colonies are necessary to ensure the accuracy of experimental results and promote honey bee research as a model organism. Here, we concluded that when larval fasting weight was >160 mg, the time point of gut emptying can be defined as the critical point separating the larval and prepupal stages. In this way, we can conduct precise studies on the prepupal stage, such as organ remodeling during metamorphosis. Simultaneously, we further verified that recombinant AccApidaecin in genetic engineered bacteria added to the larval diet upregulated antibacterial peptide gene expression, and did not stimulate the stress response in larvae, nor did it affect the pupation rate or eclosion rate. This demonstrated that feeding recombinant AccApidaecin can enhance the individual antibacterial ability at the molecular level.
Attosecond soft X-ray pulses are of great importance for the study of ultrafast electronic phenomena. In this paper, a feasible method is proposed to generate isolated fully coherent attosecond soft X-ray free electron laser via optical frequency beating. Two optical lasers with the opposite frequency chirps are used to induce a gradient frequency energy modulation, which helps to generate a gradually varied spacing electron pulse train. Subsequently, the undulator sections with electron beam delay lines are used to amplify the target ultra-short radiation. Numerical start-to-end simulations have been performed and the results demonstrate that an isolated soft X-ray pulse with the peak power of 330 GW and pulse duration of 620 as can be achieved by the proposed technique.