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Chronic inflammation exerts pleiotropic effects in the aetiology and progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Glucosamine is widely used in many countries and may have anti-inflammatory properties. We aimed to prospectively evaluate the association of regular glucosamine use with incident COPD risk and explore whether such association could be modified by smoking in the UK Biobank cohort, which recruited more than half a million participants aged 40–69 years from across the UK between 2006 and 2010. Cox proportional hazards models with adjustment for potential confounding factors were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) as well as 95 % CI for the risk of incident COPD. During a median follow-up of 8·96 years (interquartile range 8·29–9·53 years), 9016 new-onset events of COPD were documented. We found that the regular use of glucosamine was associated with a significantly lower risk of incident COPD with multivariable adjusted HR of 0·80 (95 % CI, 0·75, 0·85; P < 0·001). When subgroup analyses were performed by smoking status, the adjusted HR for the association of regular glucosamine use with incident COPD were 0·84 (0·73, 0·96), 0·84 (0·77, 0·92) and 0·71 (0·62, 0·80) among never smokers, former smokers and current smokers, respectively. No significant interaction was observed between glucosamine use and smoking status (Pfor interaction = 0·078). Incident COPD could be reduced by 14 % to 84 % through a combination of regular glucosamine use and smoking cessation.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Novel adipokines like tetranectin help explain why some people progress from obesity to diseases like diabetes, atherosclerosis, and dislipidemia OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Obesity has an established association with diabetes, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerosis. Preventing progression from obesity to insulin resistance requires understanding of the regulatory mechanisms involved in the loss of insulin sensitivity. Adipose tissue is well known to function as an endocrine organ that produces many kinds of adipokines. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Blood sample analysis from human patients and mice was used to determine associations between tetranectin and obesity. Samples were tested with a monoclonal anti-tetranectin antibody for detection with western blot. A tetranectin mutant knock out mouse line was compared to wild type littermates on high fat diet for 4 months. Insulin tolerance tests and glucose tolerance were used to determine progression to insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. Histological analysis of metabolic tissue was used to demonstrate adipocyte hypertrophy and liver steatosis. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: In the current study, we report the identification and initial characterization of a novel adipokine tetranectin. Tetranectin, which is coded by the C-type lectin domain family 3 member B (CLEC3B) gene, is ubiquitously expressed in various mouse tissues, whereas it is highly enriched in white adipose tissue. We found that the serum level of tetranectin was much higher in both obese and diabetic patients. Knocking out the tetranectin gene in mice protected against glucose intolerance in males but reduced insulin and glucose tolerance in females, without effects on food intake and body weight for either sex. Mechanistically, tetranectin targets liver tissues and its deficiency increases lipid accumulation in hepatocytes in females. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: We have identified a novel adipokine which mediates a different metabolic crosstalk among tissues to maintain systemic glucose and lipid metabolism in different genders. Further investigation of tetranectin’s function could yield a new target for precise therapeutic treatment for obesity and its associated metabolic diseases in different genders
Primary liver cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Most patients are diagnosed at late stages with poor prognosis; thus, identification of modifiable risk factors for primary prevention of liver cancer is urgently needed. The well-established risk factors of liver cancer include chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV), heavy alcohol consumption, metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes, and aflatoxin exposure. However, a large proportion of cancer cases worldwide cannot be explained by current known risk factors. Dietary factors have been suspected as important, but dietary aetiology of liver cancer remains poorly understood. In this review, we summarised and evaluated the observational studies of diet including single nutrients, food and food groups, as well as dietary patterns with the risk of developing liver cancer. Although there are large knowledge gaps between diet and liver cancer risk, current epidemiological evidence supports an important role of diet in liver cancer development. For example, exposure to aflatoxin, heavy alcohol drinking and possibly dairy product (not including yogurt) intake increase, while intake of coffee, fish and tea, light-to-moderate alcohol drinking and several healthy dietary patterns (e.g. Alternative Healthy Eating Index) may decrease liver cancer risk. Future studies with large sample size and accurate diet measurement are warranted and need to consider issues such as the possible aetiological heterogeneity between liver cancer subtypes, the influence of chronic HBV or HCV infection, the high-risk populations (e.g. cirrhosis) and a potential interplay with host gut microbiota or genetic variations.
Captioned video is widely used to enhance second language (L2) learners’ exposure to oral input beyond the classroom setting, and captioning has been found to provide an instantaneous, useful visual aid for parsing and understanding L2 oral discourse. Nevertheless, a meta-analysis has shown that captioning exerts a selective effect on L2 learners with different profiles. This study investigated whether L2 learners’ modality preferences (visual vs. auditory) and working memory capacity (high vs. low) would modulate the effect of full captions on L2 listening outcome. Results from 60 participants revealed that both cognitive variables affected their L2 listening to different extents. Notably, working memory capacity modulates the impact of L2 learners’ preferred modality on their listening outcome. Modality preference did not exert any significant impact on the listening outcome of L2 learners with lower working memory capacity. For L2 learners with high working memory capacity, their modality preference played a pivotal role in modulating their listening outcome; in this case, auditory learners had the best listening performance viewing the video without captions, whereas visual learners did best when watching the captioned video. These findings speak to the need for taking individual differences into consideration when employing captioned videos.
Synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1) is an abundant and important presynaptic vesicle protein that binds Ca2+ for the regulation of synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Our previous study reported its localization and function on spindle assembly in mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. The present study was designed to investigate the function of Syt1 during mouse oocyte activation and subsequent cortical granule exocytosis (CGE) using confocal microscopy, morpholinol-based knockdown and time-lapse live cell imaging. By employing live cell imaging, we first studied the dynamic process of CGE and calculated the time interval between [Ca2+]i rise and CGE after oocyte activation. We further showed that Syt1 was co-localized to cortical granules (CGs) at the oocyte cortex. After oocyte activation with SrCl2, the Syt1 distribution pattern was altered significantly, similar to the changes seen for the CGs. Knockdown of Syt1 inhibited [Ca2+]i oscillations, disrupted the F-actin distribution pattern and delayed the time of cortical reaction. In summary, as a synaptic vesicle protein and calcium sensor for exocytosis, Syt1 acts as an essential regulator in mouse oocyte activation events including the generation of Ca2+ signals and CGE.
Carbon nanofibers are prepared via the electrospinning method accompanied by the phase-separation process using polyacrylonitrile as a carbon precursor. Effects of preoxidation and carbonation temperatures on electrochemical performance are studied and optimized in detail. The morphology and porous structure are characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and nitrogen adsorption and desorption measurements, respectively; the electrochemical performances are measured by the CHI660E workstation. The results show that the diameter of carbon nanofibers is about 150–200 nm with a uniform and smooth surface. The optimized preoxidation temperature is 280 °C with a carbonation temperature of 700 °C. The highest capacitance is up to 155 F/g, and the symmetric supercapacitor delivers a maximum energy density of 7.78 W h/kg with a power density of 400 W/kg and a maximum power density of 4000 W/kg with an energy density of 2.0 W h/kg. The symmetric supercapacitor also exhibits good cycle stability 91.0% of initial specific capacitance after 5000 cycles.
At 9:28 pm on June 1, 2015, the cruise ship “Oriental Star” sank into Yangtze River in Jianli County, with 422 people killed. When the accident occurred, the Chinese government took immediate action and dispatched more than 9000 rescuers. The risk for outbreak of schistosomiasis was increased because of the shipwreck. Obviously it is critical to carry out risk assessment as soon as possible.
By means of the Delphi method, the situation was analyzed so that the government could fathom the severity of the accident. Then, through matrix and sigma-plotting (3-dimensional graphics) methods, related authorities performed risk assessment after site investigation.
The latest news reported that more than 9000 people were involved in the rescue. The affected river was analyzed and mapped using SigmaPlot software, according to which the possibility, harmfulness, and controllability of the accident were determined to be medium (6), medium (6), and poor (7), respectively.
The site of the accident where the cruise ship sank and rescue operations were carried out is a schistosomiasis epidemic area with high mortality and morbidity. The chance of an outbreak of the schistosomiasis epidemic in Jianli County is quite high. To protect people in this county from the epidemic, relevant logistic services should be arranged and all remains should be cleared up carefully. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:147–153)
Healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are a major cause of morbidity, mortality, and cost among hospitalized patients. Little is known about their impact on post-discharge resource utilization. The purpose of this study was to estimate post-discharge healthcare costs and utilization attributable to positive MRSA cultures during a hospitalization.
Our study cohort consisted of patients with an inpatient admission lasting longer than 48 hours within the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) system between October 1, 2007, and November 30, 2010. Of these patients, we identified those with a positive MRSA culture from microbiology reports in the VA electronic medical record. We used propensity score matching and multivariable regression models to assess the impact of positive culture on post-discharge outpatient, inpatient, and pharmacy costs and utilization in the 365 days following discharge.
Our full cohort included 369,743 inpatients, of whom, 3,599 (1.0%) had positive MRSA cultures. Our final analysis sample included 3,592 matched patients with and without positive cultures. We found that, in the 12 months following hospital discharge, having a positive culture resulted in increases in post-discharge pharmacy costs ($776, P<.0001) and inpatient costs ($12,167, P<.0001). Likewise, having a positive culture increased the risk of a readmission (odds ratio [OR]=1.396, P<.0001), the number of prescriptions (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.138; P<.0001) and the number of inpatient days (IRR, 1.204; P<.0001,) but decreased the number of subsequent outpatient encounters (IRR, 0.941; P<.008).
The results of this study indicate that MRSA infections are associated with higher levels of post-discharge healthcare cost and utilization. These findings indicate that financial benefits resulting from infection prevention efforts may extend beyond the initial hospital stay.
This study identified possible risk factors for newly diagnosed mood disorders, including depressive and bipolar disorders, in prostate cancer patients.
From 2000 to 2006, two cohorts were evaluated on the occurrence of mood disorder diagnosis and treatment. For the first cohort, data of patients diagnosed with prostate cancer was obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance (NHI) Research Database. As the second cohort, a cancer-free comparison group was matched for age, comorbidities, geographic region, and socioeconomic status.
Final analyses involved 12,872 men with prostate cancer and 12,872 matched patients. Increased incidence of both depressive (IRR 1.52, 95% CI 1.30–1.79, P <0.001) and bipolar disorder (IRR 1.84, 95% CI 1.25–2.74, P = 0.001) was observed among patients diagnosed with prostate cancer. Multivariate matched regression models show that cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and radiotherapy treatment could be independent risk factors for developing subsequent depressive and bipolar disorders.
We observed that the risk of developing newly diagnosed depressive and bipolar disorders is higher among Taiwanese prostate cancer patients. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of increased depressive and bipolar disorders among prostate cancer patients in Taiwan. A prospective study is necessary to confirm these findings.
In this work, the relationship between the substrate crystallinity and the on-state resistances of silicon carbide (SiC) photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSSs) was investigated. PCSSs with different channel lengths were fabricated on semi insulating 6H–SiC having different crystal qualities. A method was introduced for determining the photoconductive capacity of the SiC PCSSs. The experimental data suggest that the photoconductive capacity decreases sharply with the degradation of the full width at half maximum of the rocking curve of the 6H–SiC substrates. It is found that increasing the carrier mobility is a key factor for reducing the on-state resistance of the 6H–SiC PCSSs. Moreover, the results in this work present reference for the selection of 6H–SiC substrates for the fabrication of PCSSs and some other photoelectric devices.
The UK incidence of prostate cancer has been increasing in men aged < 60 years. Migrant studies and global and secular variation in incidence suggest that modifiable factors, including a high-fat diet, may contribute to prostate cancer risk. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of dietary fat intake and its derivatives on early-onset prostate cancer risk. During 1999–2004, a population-based case–control study with 512 cases and 838 controls was conducted. Cases were diagnosed with prostate cancer when ≤ 60 years. Controls were sourced from UK GP practice registers. A self-administered FFQ collected data on typical past diet. A nutritional database was used to calculate daily fat intake. A positive, statistically significant risk estimate for the highest v. lowest quintile of intake of total fat, SFA, MUFA and PUFA was observed when adjusted for confounding variables: OR 2·53 (95 % CI 1·72, 3·74), OR 2·49 (95 % CI 1·69, 3·66), OR 2·69 (95 % CI 1·82, 3·96) and OR 2·34 (95 % CI 1·59, 3·46), respectively, with all P for trend < 0·001. In conclusion, there was a positive statistically significant association between prostate cancer risk and energy-adjusted intake of total fat and fat subtypes. These results potentially identify a modifiable risk factor for early-onset prostate cancer.
The effects of melt overheating treatment on solidification of Pb-Bi alloys were studied from the viewpoint of liquid-liquid structure change (LLSC). Anomalous temperature dependence of internal friction, electrical resistivity, and entropy of liquid Pb-Bi alloys suggested that discontinuous LLSC occurred within about 520–740 °C, based on which the solidification experiments were carried out with different states of Pb-Bi melts. The results revealed that the LLSC affected the solidification behavior and microstructures significantly, that is, the enlarged undercooling, increased nucleation rate, and refined and improved morphologies were brought about when solidifying from the melt experienced LLSC. It is assumed that the LLSC changed the energy constitution of the melt system, and further affected the effective partition coefficient, thermodynamics, and kinetics of crystal growth, then finally altered the solidification behavior and solidified microstructures. This work brings a novel insight into the effect of melt overheating treatment on solidification, by which it could be more effective to manipulate melts.
According to the sequence of Rccn4, which is highly similar to the nucleotide-binding site (NBS) coding region of the cereal cyst nematode resistance gene, Cre3, three 3′ nested primers were designed to amplify its 3′ flanking region through single oligonucleotide nested polymerase chain reaction (SON-PCR). One 1264 bp band, Rccn-L, was amplified from E-10, a wheat–Aegilops variabilis translocation line containing the cereal cyst nematode resistance gene from Ae. variabilis. Sequence analysis showed that Rccn-L possesses the 3′ flanking sequence of Rccn4 and contains a 55 bp-sized consensus sequence with Rccn4. The coding region was 1026 bp, consisting of an incomplete open reading frame, a terminator codon and no initiation codon and intron; it encoded a peptide of 342 amino acid residues and shared 86% nucleotide sequence identity with Cre3. The peptide had a conserved leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain, containing the imperfect repeats, XXLXXLXXL, comprising 17% leucine residues, and shares, respectively, 89% nucleotide sequence and 78% amino acid sequence identity with the LRR sequence of the Cre3 locus. In the present study, SON-PCR was used successfully, for the first time, in plant genome research and proved to be a valuable method in plant gene cloning. The acquirement of Rccn-L established the foundation for obtaining the complete Rccn gene and further structural and functional investigations.
A broadband GaN-based semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) with a dielectric SiO2/Si3N4 distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) operating at wavelength around 415 nm was fabricated. Serious oscillation fringes due to the light interference were observed in the SESAM's reflectance spectrum. Such oscillation in reflectivity can impede the function of the saturable absorber. Simulations showed that by removing the sapphire substrate and thinning the GaN buffer layer, oscillation fringes could be significantly reduced. Experiments were carried out and the results agreed well with the simulation prediction.
In a retrospective study of 329 cases of nosocomial urinary tract infection caused by Serratia marcescens, 16 (4.9%) were fatal. Female gender (OR, 3.9; CI95, 1.3-11.7; P = .014) and secondary S. marcescens bacteremia (OR, 6.5; CI95, 1.5-28.6; P = .013) were independent prognostic factors for fatality.
A systematic study is reported about the amount-dependent morphology change in a series of Au-Pt bimetallic nanoparticles synthesized using chemical reduction. The amount of Au precursor is kept constant throughout whole series of compounds to obtain fixed Au core size (∼7.5 nm). The Au/Pt ratio is varied from 1/1 to 1/4 in order to synthesize Pt shell layer of different thickness. We observed a remarkable shift of surface plasmon band around 410 nm. With the aid of high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS), the composition of shell layer is found to be Pt enriched Au-Pt alloy. As the amount of Pt increases, the Pt clusters formed a string-like shape on the surface of nanoparticles. The average diameter of these Pt clusters is about 2 nm. This special structure may exhibit unique catalytic property.
This paper develops a framework for the safety assessment of bridges based on the nondestructive test (NDT) results of concrete. The transient elastic wave test is performed to measure the P wave velocity of concrete. The Bayesian approach is adopted to construct the posterior distribution of concrete strength. Then, reliability analysis is carried out to evaluate the safety of the bridge using the modified distribution. The limit-state function is formulated according to the AASHTO specifications. Finally, the reliability index is compared to the target reliability to see if repair or reconstruction is required. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the safety assessment of a solid-slab bridge using the proposed method.
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