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Childhood trauma (CT) has been cross-sectionally associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS), a group of biological risk factors for cardiometabolic disease. Longitudinal studies, while rare, would clarify the development of cardiometabolic dysregulations over time. Therefore, we longitudinally investigated the association of CT with the 9-year course of MetS components.
Participants (N = 2958) from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety were assessed four times across 9 years. The CT interview retrospectively assessed childhood emotional neglect and physical, emotional, and sexual abuse. Metabolic outcomes encompassed continuous MetS components (waist circumference, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein [HDL] cholesterol, blood pressure [BP], and glucose) and count of clinically elevated MetS components. Mixed-effects models estimated sociodemographic- and lifestyle-adjusted longitudinal associations of CT with metabolic outcomes over time. Time interactions evaluated change in these associations.
CT was reported by 49% of participants. CT was consistently associated with increased waist (b = 0.32, s.e. = 0.10, p = 0.001), glucose (b = 0.02, s.e. = 0.01, p < 0.001), and count of MetS components (b = 0.04, s.e. = 0.01, p < 0.001); and decreased HDL cholesterol (b = −0.01, s.e.<0.01, p = .020) and systolic BP (b = −0.33, s.e. = 0.13, p = 0.010). These associations were mainly driven by severe CT and unaffected by lifestyle. Only systolic BP showed a CT-by-time interaction, where CT was associated with lower systolic BP initially and with higher systolic BP at the last follow-up.
Over time, adults with CT have overall persistent poorer metabolic outcomes than their non-maltreated peers. Individuals with CT have an increased risk for cardiometabolic disease and may benefit from monitoring and early interventions targeting metabolism.
Depression is associated with metabolic alterations including lipid dysregulation, whereby associations may vary across individual symptoms. Evaluating these associations using a network perspective yields a more complete insight than single outcome-single predictor models.
We used data from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (N = 2498) and leveraged networks capturing associations between 30 depressive symptoms (Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology) and 46 metabolites. Analyses involved 4 steps: creating a network with Mixed Graphical Models; calculating centrality measures; bootstrapping for stability testing; validating central, stable associations by extra covariate-adjustment; and validation using another data wave collected 6 years later.
The network yielded 28 symptom-metabolite associations. There were 15 highly-central variables (8 symptoms, 7 metabolites), and 3 stable links involving the symptoms Low energy (fatigue), and Hypersomnia. Specifically, fatigue showed consistent associations with higher mean diameter for VLDL particles and lower estimated degree of (fatty acid) unsaturation. These remained present after adjustment for lifestyle and health-related factors and using another data wave.
The somatic symptoms Fatigue and Hypersomnia and cholesterol and fatty acid measures showed central, stable, and consistent relationships in our network. The present analyses showed how metabolic alterations are more consistently linked to specific symptom profiles.
The search for relevant biomarkers of major depressive disorder (MDD) is challenged by heterogeneity; biological alterations may vary in patients expressing different symptom profiles. Moreover, most research considers a limited number of biomarkers, which may not be adequate for tagging complex network-level mechanisms. Here we studied clusters of proteins and examined their relation with MDD and individual depressive symptoms.
The sample consisted of 1621 subjects from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). MDD diagnoses were based on DSM-IV criteria and the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology questionnaire measured endorsement of 30 symptoms. Serum protein levels were detected using a multi-analyte platform (171 analytes, immunoassay, Myriad RBM DiscoveryMAP 250+). Proteomic clusters were computed using weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA).
Six proteomic clusters were identified, of which one was nominally significantly associated with current MDD (p = 9.62E-03, Bonferroni adj. p = 0.057). This cluster contained 21 analytes and was enriched with pathways involved in inflammation and metabolism [including C-reactive protein (CRP), leptin and insulin]. At the individual symptom level, this proteomic cluster was associated with ten symptoms, among which were five atypical, energy-related symptoms. After correcting for several health and lifestyle covariates, hypersomnia, increased appetite, panic and weight gain remained significantly associated with the cluster.
Our findings support the idea that alterations in a network of proteins involved in inflammatory and metabolic processes are present in MDD, but these alterations map predominantly to clinical symptoms reflecting an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure.
Dietary interventions did not prevent depression onset nor reduced depressive symptoms in a large multi-center randomized controlled depression prevention study (MooDFOOD) involving overweight adults with subsyndromal depressive symptoms. We conducted follow-up analyses to investigate whether dietary interventions differ in their effects on depressive symptom profiles (mood/cognition; somatic; atypical, energy-related).
Baseline, 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up data from MooDFOOD were used (n = 933). Participants received (1) placebo supplements, (2) food-related behavioral activation (F-BA) therapy with placebo supplements, (3) multi-nutrient supplements (omega-3 fatty acids and a multi-vitamin), or (4) F-BA therapy with multi-nutrient supplements. Depressive symptom profiles were based on the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology.
F-BA therapy was significantly associated with decreased severity of the somatic (B = −0.03, p = 0.014, d = −0.10) and energy-related (B = −0.08, p = 0.001, d = −0.13), but not with the mood/cognition symptom profile, whereas multi-nutrient supplementation was significantly associated with increased severity of the mood/cognition (B = 0.05, p = 0.022, d = 0.09) and the energy-related (B = 0.07, p = 0.002, d = 0.12) but not with the somatic symptom profile.
Differentiating depressive symptom profiles indicated that food-related behavioral interventions are most beneficial to alleviate somatic symptoms and symptoms of the atypical, energy-related profile linked to an immuno-metabolic form of depression, although effect sizes were small. Multi-nutrient supplements are not indicated to reduce depressive symptom profiles. These findings show that attention to clinical heterogeneity in depression is of importance when studying dietary interventions.
Considering the heterogeneity of depression, distinct depressive symptom dimensions may be differentially associated with more objective actigraphy-based estimates of physical activity (PA), sleep and circadian rhythm (CR). We examined the association between PA, sleep, and CR assessed with actigraphy and symptom dimensions (i.e. mood/cognition, somatic/vegetative, sleep).
Fourteen-day actigraphy data of 359 participants were obtained from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. PA, sleep, and CR estimates included gross motor activity (GMA), sleep duration (SD), sleep efficiency (SE), relative amplitude between daytime and night-time activity (RA) and sleep midpoint. The 30-item Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology was used to assess depressive symptoms, which were categorised in three depression dimensions: mood/cognition, somatic/vegetative, and sleep.
GMA and RA were negatively associated with higher score on all three symptom dimensions: mood/cognition (GMA: β = −0.155, p < 0.001; RA: β = −0.116, p = 0.002), somatic/vegetative (GMA: β = −0.165, p < 0.001; RA: β = −0.133, p < 0.001), sleep (GMA: β = −0.169, p < 0.001; RA: β = −0.190, p < 0.001). The association with sleep was more pronounced for two depression dimensions: longer SD was linked to somatic/vegetative (β = 0.115, p = 0.015) dimension and lower SE was linked to sleep (β = −0.101, p = 0.011) dimension.
As three symptom dimensions were associated with actigraphy-based low PA and dampened CR, these seem to be general indicators of depression. Sleep disturbances appeared more linked to the somatic/vegetative and sleep dimensions; the effectiveness of sleep interventions in patients reporting somatic/vegetative symptoms may be explored, as well as the potential of actigraphy to monitor treatment response to such interventions.
Cluster analyses have become popular tools for data-driven classification in biological psychiatric research. However, these analyses are known to be sensitive to the chosen methods and/or modelling options, which may hamper generalizability and replicability of findings. To gain more insight into this problem, we used Specification-Curve Analysis (SCA) to investigate the influence of methodological variation on biomarker-based cluster-analysis results.
Proteomics data (31 biomarkers) were used from patients (n = 688) and healthy controls (n = 426) in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. In SCAs, consistency of results was evaluated across 1200 k-means and hierarchical clustering analyses, each with a unique combination of the clustering algorithm, fit-index, and distance metric. Next, SCAs were run in simulated datasets with varying cluster numbers and noise/outlier levels to evaluate the effect of data properties on SCA outcomes.
The real data SCA showed no robust patterns of biological clustering in either the MDD or a combined MDD/healthy dataset. The simulation results showed that the correct number of clusters could be identified quite consistently across the 1200 model specifications, but that correct cluster identification became harder when the number of clusters and noise levels increased.
SCA can provide useful insights into the presence of clusters in biomarker data. However, SCA is likely to show inconsistent results in real-world biomarker datasets that are complex and contain considerable levels of noise. Here, the number and nature of the observed clusters may depend strongly on the chosen model-specification, precluding conclusions about the existence of biological clusters among psychiatric patients.
Sleep disturbance has been consistently identified as an independent contributor to suicide risk. Inflammation has emerged as a potential mechanism linked to both sleep disturbance and suicide risk. This study tested associations between sleep duration, insomnia, and inflammation on suicidal ideation (SI) and history of a suicide attempt (SA).
Participants included 2329 adults with current or remitted depression and/or anxiety enrolled in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Sleep duration, insomnia, past week SI, and SA were assessed with self-report measures. Plasma levels of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α were obtained.
Short sleep duration (⩽6 h) compared to normal sleep duration (7–9 h) was associated with reporting a prior SA, adjusting for covariates [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.68, 95% CI 1.13–2.51]. A higher likelihood of SI during the past week was observed for participants with long sleep duration (⩾10 h) compared to normal sleep duration (AOR 2.22, 95% CI 1.02–4.82), more insomnia symptoms (AOR 1.44, 95% CI 1.14–1.83), and higher IL-6 (AOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.02–1.68). Mediation analyses indicated that the association between long sleep duration and SI was partially explained by IL-6 (AOR 1.02, 95% CI 1.00–1.05).
These findings from a large sample of adults with depression and/or anxiety provide evidence that both short and long sleep duration, insomnia symptoms, and IL-6 are associated with the indicators of suicide risk. Furthermore, the association between long sleep duration and SI may operate through IL-6.
Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.
Etiological research of depression and anxiety disorders has been hampered by diagnostic heterogeneity. In order to address this, researchers have tried to identify more homogeneous patient subgroups. This work has predominantly focused on explaining interpersonal heterogeneity based on clinical features (i.e. symptom profiles). However, to explain interpersonal variations in underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, it might be more effective to take biological heterogeneity as the point of departure when trying to identify subgroups. Therefore, this study aimed to identify data-driven subgroups of patients based on biomarker profiles.
Data of patients with a current depressive and/or anxiety disorder came from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety, a large, multi-site naturalistic cohort study (n = 1460). Thirty-six biomarkers (e.g. leptin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, tryptophan) were measured, as well as sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Latent class analysis of the discretized (lower 10%, middle, upper 10%) biomarkers were used to identify different patient clusters.
The analyses resulted in three classes, which were primarily characterized by different levels of metabolic health: ‘lean’ (21.6%), ‘average’ (62.2%) and ‘overweight’ (16.2%). Inspection of the classes’ clinical features showed the highest levels of psychopathology, severity and medication use in the overweight class.
The identified classes were strongly tied to general (metabolic) health, and did not reflect any natural cutoffs along the lines of the traditional diagnostic classifications. Our analyses suggested that especially poor metabolic health could be seen as a distal marker for depression and anxiety, suggesting a relationship between the ‘overweight’ subtype and internalizing psychopathology.
Different diagnostic interviews are used as reference standards for major depression classification in research. Semi-structured interviews involve clinical judgement, whereas fully structured interviews are completely scripted. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a brief fully structured interview, is also sometimes used. It is not known whether interview method is associated with probability of major depression classification.
To evaluate the association between interview method and odds of major depression classification, controlling for depressive symptom scores and participant characteristics.
Data collected for an individual participant data meta-analysis of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) diagnostic accuracy were analysed and binomial generalised linear mixed models were fit.
A total of 17 158 participants (2287 with major depression) from 57 primary studies were analysed. Among fully structured interviews, odds of major depression were higher for the MINI compared with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.15–3.87). Compared with semi-structured interviews, fully structured interviews (MINI excluded) were non-significantly more likely to classify participants with low-level depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≤6) as having major depression (OR = 3.13; 95% CI = 0.98–10.00), similarly likely for moderate-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores 7–15) (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.56–1.66) and significantly less likely for high-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥16) (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26–0.97).
The MINI may identify more people as depressed than the CIDI, and semi-structured and fully structured interviews may not be interchangeable methods, but these results should be replicated.
Declaration of interest
Drs Jetté and Patten declare that they received a grant, outside the submitted work, from the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, which was jointly funded by the Institute and Pfizer. Pfizer was the original sponsor of the development of the PHQ-9, which is now in the public domain. Dr Chan is a steering committee member or consultant of Astra Zeneca, Bayer, Lilly, MSD and Pfizer. She has received sponsorships and honorarium for giving lectures and providing consultancy and her affiliated institution has received research grants from these companies. Dr Hegerl declares that within the past 3 years, he was an advisory board member for Lundbeck, Servier and Otsuka Pharma; a consultant for Bayer Pharma; and a speaker for Medice Arzneimittel, Novartis, and Roche Pharma, all outside the submitted work. Dr Inagaki declares that he has received grants from Novartis Pharma, lecture fees from Pfizer, Mochida, Shionogi, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Daiichi-Sankyo, Meiji Seika and Takeda, and royalties from Nippon Hyoron Sha, Nanzando, Seiwa Shoten, Igaku-shoin and Technomics, all outside of the submitted work. Dr Yamada reports personal fees from Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd., MSD K.K., Asahi Kasei Pharma Corporation, Seishin Shobo, Seiwa Shoten Co., Ltd., Igaku-shoin Ltd., Chugai Igakusha and Sentan Igakusha, all outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests. No funder had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; preparation, review or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Although techniques such as latent class analysis have been used to
derive empirically based subtypes of depression in adult samples, there
is limited information on subtypes of depression in youth.
To identify empirically based subtypes of depression in a nationally
representative sample of US adolescents, and to test the comparability of
subtypes of depression in adolescents with those derived from a
nationally representative sample of adults.
Respondents included 912 adolescents and 805 adults with a 12-month major
depressive disorder, selected from the National Comorbidity Survey
Adolescent Supplement and the National Comorbidity Survey Replication
samples respectively. Latent class analysis was used to identify subtypes
of depression across samples. Sociodemographic and clinical correlates of
derived subtypes were also examined to establish their validity.
Three subtypes of depression were identified among adolescents, whereas
four subtypes were identified among adults. Two of these subtypes
displayed similar diagnostic profiles across adolescent and adult samples
(P=0.43); these subtypes were labelled ‘severe
typical’ (adults 45%, adolescents 35%) and ‘atypical’ (adults 16%,
adolescents 26%). The latter subtype was characterised by increased
appetite and weight gain.
The structure of depression observed in adolescents is highly similar to
the structure observed in adults. Longitudinal research is necessary to
evaluate the stability of these subtypes of depression across
Background: Chronically ill patients often develop symptoms of depression. They run the risk of sliding into a downward spiral because of the interaction between depression and chronic illness. A minimal psychological intervention (MPI) has been developed to break through the spiral by applying principles of self-management and cognitive behavioral therapy. This study examines the effects of the MPI on self-efficacy, anxiety, daily functioning and social participation.
Methods: A randomized controlled trial compared the MPI with usual care in 361 primary care patients. Nurses visited patients at home over a period of three months. Patients were aged 60 years and older, had minor depression or mild to moderate major depression and either type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Outcomes were measured at baseline and at one week, three months, and nine months after the intervention period.
Results: At nine months after treatment, the MPI was associated with less anxiety (mean difference 2.5; 95% CI 0.7–4.2) and better self efficacy skills (mean difference 1.8; 95% CI 3.4–0.2), daily functioning (mean difference 1.7; 95% CI 0.6–2.7), and social participation (mean difference 1.3; 95% CI 0.4–2.2). Effect sizes for these outcomes were small to medium (0.29–0.40). Differences were primarily due to a stabilization of outcomes in the intervention group and deterioration in the control group. No major differences were observed between DM and COPD patients.
Conclusions: The intervention appears to be reasonably effective in improving care for chronically ill elderly people. We recommend further evaluation of the MPI, including emphasis on detection and watchful waiting.
Objectives: Depression is associated with high healthcare utilization and related costs. Effective treatments might reduce the economic burden. The objective of this study was to establish the cost-utility of a minimal psychological intervention (MPI) aimed at reducing depression and improving quality of life in elderly persons with diabetes or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and co-occurring minor, mild, or moderate depression.
Methods: Trial-based cost-utility analysis was used to compare the MPI with usual care. Annual costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) based on the Euroqol (EQ5D) and on depression-free days were calculated.
Results: Annual costs and effects were not significantly different for the MPI group and care as usual. Bootstrap analysis indicated a dominant intervention, with a probability of 63 percent that the MPI is less costly and more effective than usual care.
Conclusions: The cost-effectiveness analysis does not support dissemination of the MPI in its current form. The economic evaluation study showed limited probability that MPI is cost-effective over usual care. Further adjustments to the MPI are needed to make the intervention suitable for dissemination in regular care. Trial registration: isrctn.org, identifier: ISRCTN92331982.
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