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Background: In patients with discordant atrioventricular and ventriculoarterial connections, anatomic repair restores the morphologically left ventricle to its role in supporting the systemic circulation. In this study, we have evaluated the outcomes in the intermediate term for this complex surgical procedure. Methods: Between December 1984 and October 2003, 4 patients underwent an atrial switch operation concomitantly with a Rastelli operation, and 2 patients underwent an atrial switch operation and a patch-plasty of the pulmonary outflow tract for anatomic repair at a mean age of 3.3 plus or minus 2.1 years. All patients had intracardiac rerouting, connecting the morphologically left ventricle to the aorta. Results: There were no hospital deaths. In 5 patients, reoperation was needed, either for baffle complications, exchange of the conduit, repair of a residual ventricular septal defect, or relief of obstruction within the left ventricular outflow tract. Death occurred in 1 patient, from cardiac failure 6 months after correction. Mean follow-up time was 6.5 plus or minus 6.4 years, with a range from 6 months to 17 years. At follow-up, 1 patient presented with moderate tricuspid insufficiency, and 1 patient with mild obstruction of the pulmonary venous pathway. The remaining 3 patients showed good left and right ventricular function, and no, or mild tricuspid and mitral insufficiency. Conclusions: Anatomic repair can be performed with low hospital mortality. Restoration of the morphologically left ventricle into the systemic circulation in patients with discordant atrioventricular and ventriculoarterial connections is a demanding approach, associated with various reoperations over time. Despite this, the approach seems to be an appropriate solution for selected patients, since the majority of the patients show good left and right ventricular function, and no, or mild tricuspid and mitral insufficiency up to 17 years after correction.
Background: Creation of an extracardiac cavopulmonary connection has been proposed as a superior alternative to the lateral intracardiac tunnel for the completion of total cavopulmonary connection. Methods and results: We made a retrospective review of our experience with 125 patients undergoing a total cavopulmonary connection between June 1994 and January 2003. Our experience with the extracardiac connection for completion began in 1999. Since 1994, we have constructed an intracardiac tunnel in 50 patients, and an extracardiac connection in 75. Of the total number, 83 had undergone an earlier partial cavopulmonary connection. Additional intracardiac procedures were performed in 43 patients at time of completion, in 25 of those undergoing extracardiac completion, and in 18 of the patients having an intracardiac procedure. The mean size of the tube used for completion was 19 mm. The mean cross-clamp time for placement of the intracardiac tunnel was 77 min, with a median of 80.5 min, and a mean cardiopulmonary bypass time of 139 min, with a median of 131 min. For construction of the extracardiac connection, a mean cross-clamp time in 24 of the 75 patients was 54 min, with a median of 54 min. Mean cardiopulmonary bypass time for all the patients with an extracardiac connection was 100 min, with a median of 88 min. Reoperations were needed in 10 patients, 6 having intracardiac and 4 extracardiac procedures. Of these, 5 were early and 5 late, including one take down. None of the patients died after these interventions. Taken overall, 8 patients died, with 5 early deaths. In the multivariable analysis, cardiopulmonary bypass time of more than 120 min, atrioventricular valvar replacement, and banding of the pulmonary trunk prior to the total cavopulmonary connection, all reached statistical significance for early death, whereas only heterotaxy syndrome remained as the sole risk factor for late death. There was no significant difference in survival between the modifications used. Discussion: Whereas we could not identify any clinical superiority for the extracardiac approach in the short-term, the concept of extracardiac completion has helped to simplify the overall procedure. Longer follow-up will be required to elucidate any potential advantages.
PRD1 is a ds-DNA bacteriophage from the Tectiviridae family with an unusual structural feature: the viral genome is enclosed by a protein-rich membrane, which is in turn enclosed by an external icosahedral protein shell (capsid). Three-dimensional reconstructions from cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) images have revealed the structure of the PRD1 capsid at moderate resolution (28 Å), while X-ray crystallographic studies have recently provided a high resolution (1.85 Å) picture of the major coat protein, P3. We have now combined these results from different imaging methods to obtain a more detailed understanding of the virion organization. The combination has been made in a cyclic process: a preliminary fitting of the atomic structure of P3 to each one of its independent positions in the cryo-EM maps of the capsids provided initial models that could be used to improve the reconstructions; the refined maps then served as a base frame for an optimized fit. This process allows us to study the viral particle structure at “quasi-atomic” resolution.
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