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The relationship between dietary nut intake and hyperuricemia risk remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between different nut intake and hyperuricemia risk with a cross-sectional study.
A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was adopted to collect dietary information. Biochemical and anthropometric parameters were measured by standard methods. Multivariate-adjusted logistic regression models were implemented to analyze the relationship between individual nut intake and hyperuricemia risk.
Qingdao University in Shandong Province, China.
During 2018-2019, a total of 14,056 undergraduates (6,862 males and 7,194 females) aged 15-25 years participated in the study.
After adjusting for multiple confounding factors, compared with the lowest quartile, the highest quartile intakes of pine nut (95% CI: 0.51, 0.98) was significantly associated with 29% reduction in hyperuricemia risk, the highest quartile intake of walnut (OR = 0.78; 95% CI: 0.58, 1.05) was marginally negatively associated with hyperuricemia risk.
The present study showed that the relationships between intakes of different nuts and hyperuricemia risk were different. Increased dietary intake of walnut and pine nut are negatively associated with the hyperuricemia.
This study analyzed the effects of the day of trophectoderm (TE) biopsy and blastocyst grade on clinical and neonatal outcomes. The results showed that the implantation and live birth rates of day 5 (D5) TE biopsy were significantly higher compared with those of D6 TE biopsy. The miscarriage rate of the former was lower than that of the latter, but there was no statistically significant difference. Higher quality blastocysts can achieve better implantation and live birth rates. Among good quality blastocysts, the implantation and live birth rates of D5 and D6 TE biopsy were not significantly different. Among fair quality and poor quality blastocysts, the implantation and live birth rates of D5 TE biopsy were significantly higher compared with those of D6 TE biopsy. Neither blastocyst grade nor the day of TE biopsy significantly affected the miscarriage rate. Neonatal outcomes, including newborn sex, gestational age, preterm birth, birth weight and low birth weight in the D5 and D6 TE biopsies were not significantly different. Both blastocyst grade and the day of TE biopsy must be considered at the same time when performing preimplantation genetic testing–frozen embryo transfer.
Schizophrenia has been primarily conceptualized as a disorder of high-order cognitive functions with deficits in executive brain regions. Yet due to the increasing reports of early sensory processing deficit, recent models focus more on the developmental effects of impaired sensory process on high-order functions. The present study examined whether this pathological interaction relates to an overarching system-level imbalance, specifically a disruption in macroscale hierarchy affecting integration and segregation of unimodal and transmodal networks.
We applied a novel combination of connectome gradient and stepwise connectivity analysis to resting-state fMRI to characterize the sensorimotor-to-transmodal cortical hierarchy organization (96 patients v. 122 controls).
We demonstrated compression of the cortical hierarchy organization in schizophrenia, with a prominent compression from the sensorimotor region and a less prominent compression from the frontal−parietal region, resulting in a diminished separation between sensory and fronto-parietal cognitive systems. Further analyses suggested reduced differentiation related to atypical functional connectome transition from unimodal to transmodal brain areas. Specifically, we found hypo-connectivity within unimodal regions and hyper-connectivity between unimodal regions and fronto-parietal and ventral attention regions along the classical sensation-to-cognition continuum (voxel-level corrected, p < 0.05).
The compression of cortical hierarchy organization represents a novel and integrative system-level substrate underlying the pathological interaction of early sensory and cognitive function in schizophrenia. This abnormal cortical hierarchy organization suggests cascading impairments from the disruption of the somatosensory−motor system and inefficient integration of bottom-up sensory information with attentional demands and executive control processes partially account for high-level cognitive deficits characteristic of schizophrenia.
Schizophrenia is considered a polygenic disorder. People with schizophrenia and those with genetic high risk of schizophrenia (GHR) have presented with similar neurodevelopmental deficits in hemispheric asymmetry. The potential associations between neurodevelopmental abnormalities and schizophrenia-related risk genes in both schizophrenia and those with GHR remains unclear.
To investigate the shared and specific alternations to the structural network in people with schizophrenia and those with GHR. And to identify an association between vulnerable structural network alternation and schizophrenia-related risk genes.
A total of 97 participants with schizophrenia, 79 participants with GHR and 192 healthy controls, underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scans at a single site. We used graph theory to characterise hemispheric and whole-brain structural network topological metrics. For 26 people in the schizophrenia group and 48 in the GHR group with DTI scans we also calculated their schizophrenia-related polygenic risk scores (SZ-PRSs). The correlations between alterations to the structural network and SZ-PRSs were calculated. Based on the identified genetic–neural association, bioinformatics enrichment was explored.
There were significant hemispheric asymmetric deficits of nodal efficiency, global and local efficiency in the schizophrenia and GHR groups. Hemispheric asymmetric deficit of local efficiency was significantly positively correlated with SZ-PRSs in the schizophrenia and GHR groups. Bioinformatics enrichment analysis showed that these risk genes may be linked to signal transduction, neural development and neuron structure. The schizophrenia group showed a significant decrease in the whole-brain structural network.
The shared asymmetric deficits in people with schizophrenia and those with GHR, and the association between anomalous asymmetry and SZ-PRSs suggested a vulnerability imaging marker regulated by schizophrenia-related risk genes. Our findings provide new insights into asymmetry regulated by risk genes and provides a better understanding of the genetic–neural pathological underpinnings of schizophrenia.
Mesanophrys sp. is a newly identified parasitic ciliate infecting farmed swimming crab. To demonstrate the correlation between parasite development and environmental conditions, this study aimed to investigate the effect of temperature, salinity, pH and frequency of passage of parasite on survival, growth and body size of Mesanophrys sp. in vitro. The results revealed that survival, population density and growth rate of the parasite were highest at 12°C and decreased with increasing temperature from 16 to 26°C. In addition, the survival, population density and growth rate of Mesanophrys sp. were high at 20‰. When salinity was adjusted to levels lower (0–10‰) and higher (40–60‰) than 20‰, the parasite's survival and growth rate gradually declined. The optimal pH for parasite survival was 8.0, whereas its survival was inhibited at <4.5 or >9.5. Our result also showed that parasite body proportions (length:width) were significantly smaller at the highest temperature compared to the lower temperature, whereas different salinities had no significant effect. Furthermore, we introduced dynamic parasite culture systems in vitro where Mesanophrys sp. was cultured in medium-containing culture plates through continually reducing and halving the old medium into fresh. Application of this optimized dilution timing technique with fresh medium and sub-cultured enabled a continuous culture of parasites. Under this optimized condition, the highest population density and exponential growth rate of the parasite were achieved than that of a control group. This study will help to understand the ciliated parasite infection dynamics and provides new possibilities for in vitro parasite-associated studies.
Few studies have assessed the characteristics of spousal psychopathologies among parents of schoolchildren with and without psychological disorders (PD) in China.
Parental symptoms were measured using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) in 275 mothers and 278 fathers of 298 schoolchildren with PDs diagnosed in a population survey and in 825 mothers and 834 fathers of 894 schoolchildren without PDs as a 1:3 matched comparison group. Spousal GHQ scores were compared. Childhood PD type, presence of childhood comorbidities, and multiple parental and family characteristics were examined as predictors for parental GHQ scores by multiple linear regression analyses.
The GHQ scores were significantly higher among mothers and fathers of children with any PD. Maternal GHQ scores were higher than paternal scores and significantly correlated with paternal GHQ scores in both groups. Spousal GHQ, personal PD history, and childhood PD comorbidity were significant independent predictors of both parents’ GHQ scores. There were also significant associations among parental chronic disease, low family income, and paternal and maternal GHQ score, as well as among low maternal education, less common disorder (LCD) prevalence in children and maternal GHQ score. The rate of GHQ score ≥3 for both parents was significantly higher in the study group than the control group (15.1 vs.7.0%).
Parents of children with any PD type demonstrate significantly elevated psychopathologies, and psychopathology tends to occur concomitantly and resemble that of the other spouse. Screening and treatment of parental psychiatric symptoms will benefit all family members.
Battery-casing sealing is the key factor for secure travel of new energy vehicles. We constructed a relatively accurate mechanical-simulation model by selecting a constitutive model, analyzing the influence of thermal elongation, verifying the grid-independence and comparing numerically by the pressure-measurement film on the basis of studying the physical performance of a certain type of sealing material that had been used in battery-casings after aging. Based on a porous-media model and combined with changes of macroscopic and microscopic contact characteristics of materials at different times after aging, the evolution rule of sealing performance with time was analyzed quantitatively by calculating the leakage. By analyzing the structure of circular arc bulge on the surface of sealing material, the radius of circular arc bulge with better sealing performance was obtained, which could reduce the leakage of sealing structure during the material’s lifecycle.
Characterizing the whole genetic architecture of drought tolerance (DT) is a persistent challenge for the breeders. Here we developed a half-sib population comprising of 404 lines of two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations with M8206 as the joint parent (M8206 × TongShan and ZhengYang × M8206) and tested for its DT under sand culture. The population was sequenced using restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing filtered with minor allele frequency ≥0.01; 55,936 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were obtained and assembled into 6137 SNPLDBs (SNP linkage disequilibrium blocks). The restricted two-stage multi-locus genome-wide association analysis characterized with error and false-positive control identified 40 QTLs with 93 alleles on an average of 34.75% of the phenotypic variance (PV) collectively for relative root length (RRL) and relative shoot length (RSL) that served as potential DT indicators. Among these, eight loci corresponded to previously reported QTLs, whereas 32 loci were therefore novel. The identified QTLs with their corresponding alleles for RRL and RSL were organized into QTL-allele matrices, depicting the comprehensive DT genetic architecture of the three parents/half-sib population. From the matrices, we predicted the possible best/optimal genotype with weighted average value (WAV) 1.553 over two indicators, while for the top 10 single crosses among RILs with 95th percentile WAV was 1.218–1.257, transgressive over the parents (0.693–0.794) yet much less than 1.553. From the detected QTL-allele system, 65 potential candidate genes collectively for both indicators explaining on an average of 24.41% PV were annotated and χ2-tested as a DT candidate gene system involving nine biological processes.
Background:Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important nosocomial pathogen associated with intrinsic and acquired resistance mechanisms to major classes of antibiotics. To better understand clinical risk factors for drug-resistant P. aeruginosa infection, decision-tree models for the prediction of fluoroquinolone and carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa were constructed and compared to multivariable logistic regression models using performance characteristics. Methods: In total, 5,636 patients admitted to 4 hospitals within a New York City healthcare system from 2010 to 2016 with blood, respiratory, wound, or urine cultures growing PA were included in the analysis. Presence or absence of drug-resistance was defined using the first culture of any source positive for P. aeruginosa during each hospitalization. To train and validate the prediction models, cases were randomly split (60 of 40) into training and validation datasets. Clinical decision-tree models for both fluoroquinolone and carbapenem resistance were built from the training dataset using 21 clinical variables of interest, and multivariable logistic regression models were built using the 16 clinical variables associated with resistance in bivariate analyses. Decision-tree models were optimized using K-fold cross validation, and performance characteristics between the 4 models were compared. Results: From 2010 through 2016, prevalence of fluoroquinolone and carbapenem resistance was 32% and 18%, respectively. For fluoroquinolone resistance, the logistic regression algorithm attained a positive predictive value (PPV) of 0.57 and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 0.73 (sensitivity, 0.27; specificity, 0.90) and the decision-tree algorithm attained a PPV of 0.65 and an NPV of 0.72 (sensitivity 0.21, specificity 0.95). For carbapenem resistance, the logistic regression algorithm attained a PPV of 0.53 and a NPV of 0.85 (sensitivity 0.20, specificity 0.96) and the decision-tree algorithm attained a PPV of 0.59 and an NPV of 0.84 (sensitivity 0.22, specificity 0.96). The decision-tree partitioning algorithm identified prior fluoroquinolone resistance, SNF stay, sex, and length-of-stay as variables of greatest importance for fluoroquinolone resistance compared to prior carbapenem resistance, age, and length-of-stay for carbapenem resistance. The highest-performing decision tree for fluoroquinolone resistance is illustrated in Fig. 1. Conclusions: Supervised machine-learning techniques may facilitate prediction of P. aeruginosa resistance and risk factors driving resistance patterns in hospitalized patients. Such techniques may be applied to readily available clinical information from hospital electronic health records to aid with clinical decision making.
The effects of resistant starch on glycaemic control are controversial. In this study, a systematic review and meta-analysis of results from nineteen randomised controlled trials (RCT) was performed to illustrate the effects of resistant starch on glycaemic control. A literature search was conducted on PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane electronic databases for related publications from inception to 6 April 2020. Key inclusion criteria were: RCT; resistant starch as intervention substances and reporting glucose- and insulin-related endpoints. Exclusion criteria were: using type I resistant starch or a mixture of resistant starch and other functional food ingredients as intervention; using substances other than digestible starch as controls. The effect of resistant starch on fasting plasma glucose was significant (effect size (ES) –0·09 (95 % CI –0·13, −0·04) mmol/l, P = 0·001) compared with digestible starch. Subgroup analyses revealed that the ES was larger when the dosage of resistant starch was more than 28 g/d (ES –0·16 (95 % CI –0·24, –0·08) mmol/l, P < 0·001) or the intervention period was more than 8 weeks (ES –0·12 (95 % CI –0·18, –0·06) mmol/l, P < 0·001). The effect on homoeostatic model assessment (HOMA)-insulin resistance (IR) was significant (ES –0·33 (95 % CI –0·51, –0·14), P = 0·001). However, the effects on other insulin-related endpoints were not significant, including fasting plasma insulin, four endpoints from the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (insulin sensitivity index, acute insulin response, disposition index and glucose effectiveness) and HOMA-β. The current study indicated moderate effects of resistant starch on improving glycaemic control.
Shifts in the maternal gut microbiota have been implicated in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Understanding the interaction between gut microbiota and host glucose metabolism will provide a new target of prediction and treatment. In this nested case-control study, we aimed to investigate the causal effects of gut microbiota from GDM patients on the glucose metabolism of germ-free (GF) mice. Stool and peripheral blood samples, as well as clinical information, were collected from 45 GDM patients and 45 healthy controls (matched by age and prepregnancy body mass index (BMI)) in the first and second trimester. Gut microbiota profiles were explored by next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, and inflammatory factors in peripheral blood were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Fecal samples from GDM and non-GDM donors were transferred to GF mice. The gut microbiota of women with GDM showed reduced richness, specifically decreased Bacteroides and Akkermansia, as well as increased Faecalibacterium. The relative abundance of Akkermansia was negatively associated with blood glucose levels, and the relative abundance of Faecalibacterium was positively related to inflammatory factor concentrations. The transfer of fecal microbiota from GDM and non-GDM donors to GF mice resulted in different gut microbiota colonization patterns, and hyperglycemia was induced in mice that received GDM donor microbiota. These results suggested that the shifting pattern of gut microbiota in GDM patients contributed to disease pathogenesis.
This study aimed to identify clinical features for prognosing mortality risk using machine-learning methods in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A retrospective study of the inpatients with COVID-19 admitted from 15 January to 15 March 2020 in Wuhan is reported. The data of symptoms, comorbidity, demographic, vital sign, CT scans results and laboratory test results on admission were collected. Machine-learning methods (Random Forest and XGboost) were used to rank clinical features for mortality risk. Multivariate logistic regression models were applied to identify clinical features with statistical significance. The predictors of mortality were lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP) and age based on 500 bootstrapped samples. A multivariate logistic regression model was formed to predict mortality 292 in-sample patients with area under the receiver operating characteristics (AUROC) of 0.9521, which was better than CURB-65 (AUROC of 0.8501) and the machine-learning-based model (AUROC of 0.4530). An out-sample data set of 13 patients was further tested to show our model (AUROC of 0.6061) was also better than CURB-65 (AUROC of 0.4608) and the machine-learning-based model (AUROC of 0.2292). LDH, CRP and age can be used to identify severe patients with COVID-19 on hospital admission.
Earlier studies examining structural brain abnormalities associated with cognitively derived subgroups were mainly cross-sectional in design and had mixed findings. Thus, we obtained cross-sectional and longitudinal data to characterize the extent and trajectory of brain structure abnormalities underlying distinct cognitive subtypes (“preserved,” “deteriorated,” and “compromised”) seen in psychotic spectrum disorders.
Data from 364 subjects (225 patients with psychotic conditions and 139 healthy controls) were first used to determine the relationship of cognitive subtypes with cross-sectional measures of subcortical volume and cortical thickness. To probe neurodevelopmental abnormalities, brain structure laterality was examined. To examine whether neuroprogressive abnormalities persist, longitudinal brain structural changes over 5 years were examined within a subset of 101 subjects. Subsequent discriminant analysis using the identified brain measures was performed on an independent subject group.
Cross-sectional comparisons showed that cortical thinning and limbic volume reductions were most widespread in “deteriorated” cognitive subtype. Laterality comparisons showed more rightward amygdala lateralization in “compromised” than “preserved” subtype. Longitudinal comparisons revealed progressive hippocampal shrinkage in “deteriorated” compared with healthy controls and “preserved” subtype, which correlated with worse negative symptoms, cognitive and psychosocial functioning. Post-hoc discrimination analysis on an independent group of 52 subjects using the identified brain structures found an overall accuracy of 71% for classification of cognitive subtypes.
These findings point toward distinct extent and trajectory of corticolimbic abnormalities associated with cognitive subtypes in psychosis, which can allow further understanding of the biological course of cognitive functioning over illness course and with treatment.
The delayed coalescence of drops with the interface between a moving aqueous layer and an oil phase is investigated in a novel flow channel. Drops are released onto oil–aqueous interfaces moving at velocities from
. The evolution of the drop shape, the film thickness between the drop and the bulk liquid, and the velocities of the drop surface and the bulk interface were measured with planar laser-induced fluorescence. As the interface speed increases, the drop coalescence is delayed. This is attributed to the lubrication pressure that develops in the draining film. This pressure was calculated by using the drop shape and the tangential velocities of the drop surface and the bulk interface, and was shown to increase with the interface velocity. The film forming between the drop and the bulk liquid has a dimple shape, symmetric about the centreline. With increasing interface velocity, the dimple shifts to the front part of the drop, resulting locally in a low pressure, which leads to film rupture. As the film breaks, ‘oil drops on a string’ formations are entrained into the water phase, which is rarely seen when a drop coalesces with a stationary liquid–liquid interface. The velocity fields in the drop were investigated with particle image velocimetry. It is found immediately after reaching the interface that the drops accelerate to reach the interface speed. Initially there is a strong internal circulation in the drops, which decays quickly as the drops approach the speed of the interface.
Although higher dietary intake of MUFA has been shown to improve glycaemic control and lipid profiles, whether MUFA consumption from different sources is linked to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains unclear. We aimed to prospectively assess the associations of plant-derived MUFA (P-MUFA) and animal-derived MUFA (A-MUFA) intakes with T2D risk in a nationwide oriental cohort. Overall, 15 022 Chinese adults, aged ≥20 years, from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS 1997–2011) were prospectively followed up for a median of 14 years. Consumption of MUFA from plant and animal sources was assessed using 3-d 24-h recalls in each survey, and the cumulative average of intake was calculated. Multivariable-adjusted Cox models were constructed to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) of T2D according to quartiles of MUFA intake. P-MUFA were mainly consumed from cooked vegetable oils, fried bread sticks and rice, while A-MUFA were mainly consumed from pork, lard and eggs. Intake of P-MUFA was associated with a higher risk of T2D (HRQ4 v. Q1 1·50 (95 % CI 1·18, 1·90); Ptrend = 0·0013), whereas A-MUFA showed no significant association (HRQ4 v. Q1 0·84 (95 % CI 0·59, 1·20); Ptrend = 0·30). When further considering the cooking method of food sources, consumption of P-MUFA from fried foods was positively associated with T2D risk (HRQ4 v. Q1 1·60 (95 % CI 1·26, 2·02); Ptrend = 0·0006), whereas non-fried P-MUFA were not associated. Intake of MUFA from fried plant-based foods may elevate T2D risk among the Chinese population.
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is enormously important in suicide and major depressive disorder (MDD). However, little is known about the structural alterations in the brains of people with MDD and suicidal ideation. We examined the gray matter volume (GMV) of the PFC of individuals with MDD and suicidal ideation to determine if PFC volumetric differences contribute to suicidal ideation in patients with MDD. Thirty-five subjects with MDD and suicidal ideation, 38 subjects with MDD but without suicidal ideation, and 43 age- and gender-matched healthy control (HC) subjects underwent T1-weighted imaging. A voxel-based morphometric analysis was conducted to compare the PFC GMVs of the three groups. Further GMV reductions in the left and right dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) and right ventrolateral PFC (VLPFC) were detected in the MDD with suicidal ideation group compared with those in the HC group and the MDD without suicidal ideation group, whereas the MDD without suicidal ideation group only exhibited significant differences in the left DLPFC relative to the HC group. Our findings demonstrated that left DLPFC reductions were associated with MDD and suicidal ideation, and diminished GMV reductions in the right DLPFC and right VLPFC were only associated with suicidal ideation. These results help us better understand the neuropathological changes in MDD with suicidal ideation.
The Taihangshan Mountain Belt, in the central North China Craton, represents an important crustal and tectonic boundary. To explore the complex tectonic evolution of this area during the Mesozoic–Cenozoic, we gathered zircon and apatite (U–Th)/He thermochronology data along a vertical transect (elevation of 630−1584 m) of the northern part of the Taihang Mountain Belt. From our data, we observed three separate rapid cooling phases that occurred at 100 Ma, 50−40 Ma and 27 Ma. Combined with previously published geochronological ages, we suggest that the uplift of the Taihang Mountain Belt initiated during the Jurassic and experienced multiphase rapid uplift from the Cretaceous to the Cenozoic. The early Cretaceous rapid cooling/uplifting events are widespread in the North China Craton and are caused by the collision between the Okhotomorsk Block and the East Asian continental margin. The Eocene and Oligocene rapid cooling events correspond to the initial rifting and thermal subsidence of the Bohai Bay Basin, indicating a coupling between the creation of basins and mountains.
The present study investigated the effects of Porphyra yezoensis enzyme degradation extract (PYEDE) on the brain injuries and neurodegenerative diseases due to oxidative stress. We used in vitro antioxidant systems to verify the antioxidant potential of PYEDE. The results indicated that the PYEDE alleviated weight loss and organ atrophy, reduced the levels of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation and elevated reduced glutathione (GSH) content in the serum and brains of the d-galactose-induced ageing model mice. The PYEDE also renewed the glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant capability activities, down-regulated the inducible nitric oxide synthase activity and nitric oxide levels, normalised the hippocampal neurons and modulated multiple neurotransmitter systems by inhibiting the activities of acetylcholinesterase and monoamine oxidase in the up-regulation of acetylcholine, dopamine and noradrenaline levels. Overall, the PYEDE is a promising supplement for the alleviation of oxidative stress and age-associated brain diseases.
We have designed and developed the digital correlation receiver for Mingantu Spectral Radioheliograph (MUSER). The MUSER digital correlation receiver is implemented to sample, channelise, and correlate a 400 MHz wide solar radio signal of 40-antenna output from MUSER intermediate-frequency array and 60-antenna output from MUSER high-frequency array. The polyphase filter channeliser is used for wide-band channelisation and proved to be efficient to realise narrow-band filtering (
MHz) in a high-speed digital signal-processing pipeline (sampling rate
Gsps). All modules of the digital correlation receiver are implemented on FPGA-based hardware and integrated via high-speed backplane, which makes a well-performed and economical correlator system for MUSER array. The future upgrade is also addressed including spectral resolution enhancement and radio-frequency-interference excision.
As the Qing state launched its full-scale educational reform at the turn of the twentieth century, tens of thousands of new schools mushroomed all over China. Their urgent and enormous demand for textbooks created a thriving new market that attracted both Chinese and foreign publishing firms. Nurtured in China's traditional book trade, Chinese print capitalists had local knowledge of distribution networks and cultural politics, but not a real command of producing educational Western knowledge. To keep up with Chinese students’ increasing demand for Western knowledge, they pirated textbooks published by foreign companies. Meanwhile, leading American and British publishing corporations were expanding their international business by targeting developing countries that had recently established a modern general education system, like China. Drawing from government and company archives, as well as personal papers and legal documents, this article traces the multinational competition, copyright disputes, and business collaborations between a leading textbook provider in China and their Anglo-American competitors between the 1900s and the 1930s. It illustrates an unexpected and uneasy partnership some foreign publishers formed with Chinese pirates in order to gain better access to China's textbook market. Chinese publishers, on the other hand, used piracy and their local knowledge to bargain for better import credit and deals with their foreign rivals. Both sides were dependent on each other to gain the advantage in their transnational business operations in the globalizing Asian textbook business.