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The southern Great Xing’an Range (SGXR), located in the eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), is one of the most economically important Cu–Mo–Fe–Sn–Pb–Zn–Ag metallogenic provinces in China. The newly discovered Panjiaduan Cu–Pb–Zn deposit (9.3 Mt; at 1.36% Cu, 2.90% Pb, 3.80% Zn and 38.12 g/t Ag), located in the SE segment of the SGXR, is primarily hosted in fracture zones in volcanic rocks and granodiorite of the Manitu Formation. Four paragenetic stages of metallic mineralization are identified: (I) quartz-pyrite-arsenopyrite; (II) quartz-polymetallic sulphide; (III) quartz-galena-sphalerite-argentite; and (IV) quartz-calcite-minor sulphide. The hydrothermal quartz contains three types of primary fluid inclusion (FIs): vapour-rich two-phase liquid-vapour (LV-type), liquid-rich two-phase liquid-vapour (VL-type) and three-phase liquid-vapour-solid FIs (SL-type). Stages I and II contain all types with homogenization temperatures (Th) of 324–386 °C and 276–334 °C as well as salinities of 0.7–38.0 wt% and 0.9–34.7 wt%, respectively, whereas stage III is composed of VL- and LV-type FIs with Th of 210–269 °C and salinities of 0.5–7.2 wt%. Only VL-type FIs occur in stage IV, with Th of 139–185 °C and salinities of 1.6–4.2 wt%. The δ18OH2O and δD values vary from −15.7 to 2.6‰ and −132.7 to −110.2‰, respectively, indicating predominant meteoric water with an initial magmatic source. The He–Ar isotopic compositions of the pyrite inclusions from the Panjiaduan Cu–Pb–Zn veins suggest that fluids were derived from the crust.
In the paper, a novel modular soft robot that can crawl and turn is presented. The modular soft robot is composed of multiple drive modules connected in series, including one head module, one tail module and three body modules. Each module is actuated by the air chamber. Due to the nonlinear performance of the air chamber, the strain energy function of the air chamber is established. The relationship between the displacement of the air chamber expansion wall and the inflation pressure is obtained, and the manufacturing parameters of the air chamber are determined. By dividing the body of the robot into a series of continuous flexible models, the driving force and the friction force of the robot in locomotion are analyzed. An inflation and deflation control method is presented to complete the locomotion. According to the experiment, the crawling speed of the robot can reach 15.53 mm/s (0.03 body length per second). The turning speed of the robot can reach 1.273 °/s. The robot can crawl and turn on the rough blanket surface effectively. The robot can explore and move in a complex and changeable environment.
Cryogenic power electronics enable the highly efficient ultra-dense power conversion systems that are critical for electrified aircraft propulsion (EAP) and have the potential to transform aircraft powertrain design. Much like superconducting electric machines, cryogenic power electronics offer benefits achieved through improved power device performance, reduced conductor electrical resistivity, and increased heat transfer temperature differential. In this chapter, key steps in the development of cryogenic power electronics are presented, from the component to the converter level. First, the characterization of critical components – including power devices and magnetics – at cryogenic temperature is introduced to establish the basic knowledge necessary for cryogenic design and optimization. Second, special considerations specific to cryogenic design, and trade and design studies for the cryogenic power stage and filter electronics are detailed. Finally, an example of a high-power cryogenically-cooled inverter system for an EAP application is illustrated, with safety considerations and the protection scheme highlighted.
The association between executive dysfunction, brain dysconnectivity, and inflammation is a prominent feature across major psychiatric disorders (MPDs), schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder. A dimensional approach is warranted to delineate their mechanistic interplay across MPDs.
This single site study included a total of 1543 participants (1058 patients and 485 controls). In total, 1169 participants underwent diffusion tensor and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (745 patients and 379 controls completed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test). Fractional anisotropy (FA) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) assessed structural and functional connectivity, respectively. Pro-inflammatory cytokine levels [interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α] were obtained in 325 participants using blood samples collected with 24 h of scanning. Group differences were determined for main measures, and correlation and mediation analyses and machine learning prediction modeling were performed.
Executive deficits were associated with decreased FA, increased ReHo, and elevated IL-1β and IL-6 levels across MPDs, compared to controls. FA and ReHo alterations in fronto-limbic-striatal regions contributed to executive deficits. IL-1β mediated the association between FA and cognition, and IL-6 mediated the relationship between ReHo and cognition. Executive cognition was better predicted by both brain connectivity and cytokine measures than either one alone for FA-IL-1β and ReHo-IL-6.
Transdiagnostic associations among brain connectivity, inflammation, and executive cognition exist across MPDs, implicating common neurobiological substrates and mechanisms for executive deficits in MPDs. Further, inflammation-related brain dysconnectivity within fronto-limbic-striatal regions may represent a transdiagnostic dimension underlying executive dysfunction that could be leveraged to advance treatment.
Digital biomarkers of mental health, created using data extracted from everyday technologies including smartphones, wearable devices, social media and computer interactions, have the opportunity to revolutionise mental health diagnosis and treatment by providing near-continuous unobtrusive and remote measures of behaviours associated with mental health symptoms. Machine learning models process data traces from these technologies to identify digital biomarkers. In this editorial, we caution clinicians against using digital biomarkers in practice until models are assessed for equitable predictions (‘model equity’) across demographically diverse patients at scale, behaviours over time, and data types extracted from different devices and platforms. We posit that it will be difficult for any individual clinic or large-scale study to assess and ensure model equity and alternatively call for the creation of a repository of open de-identified data for digital biomarker development.
The aim of this work is to design and model a novel modular bionic soft robot for crawling and crossing obstacles. The modular bionic soft robot is composed of several serial driving soft modules, each module is composed of two parallel soft actuators. By analyzing the influence of working pressure and manufacturing size on the stiffness of the modular bionic soft robot, the nonlinear variable stiffness model of the modular bionic soft robot is established. Based on this model, the spatial states and design parameters of the modular bionic soft robot are discussed when the modular bionic soft robot can pass through the obstacle. Experiments show that when the inflation air pressure of the modular bionic soft robot is 70 kPa, its speed can reach 7.89 mm/s and the height of obstacles passed by it can reach 42.8 mm. The feasibility of the proposed modular bionic soft robot and nonlinear variable stiffness model is verified by locomotion experiments.
Previously reported wearable systems for people with Parkinson’s disease (PD) have been focused on the detection of abnormal gait. They suffered from limited accuracy, large latency, poor durability, comfort, and convenience for daily use. Herewith we report an intelligent wearable system (IWS) that can accurately detect abnormal gait in real-time and provide timely cueing for PD patients. The system features novel sensitive, comfortable and durable plantar pressure sensing insoles with a highly compressed data set, an accurate and fast gait algorithm, and wirelessly controlled timely sensory cueing devices. A total of 29 PD patients participated in the first phase without cueing for developing processes of the algorithm, which achieved an accuracy of over 97% for off-line detection of freezing of gait (FoG). In the second phase with cueing, the evaluation of the whole system was conducted with 16 PD subjects via trial and a questionnaire survey. This system demonstrated an accuracy of 94% for real-time detection of FoG and a mean latency of 0.37 s between the onset of FoG and cueing activation. In questionnaire survey, 88% of the PD participants confirmed that this wearable system could effectively enhance walking, 81% thought that the system was comfortable and convenient, and 70% overcame the FoG. Therefore, the IWS makes it an effective, powerful, and convenient tool for enhancing the mobility of people with PD.
How do subnational agents exercise policy discretion in the social welfare sphere? To what extent do they do so as a result of various bureaucratic and fiscal incentives? The literature has documented several explanatory frameworks in the context of China that predominantly focus on the realm of developmental policies. Owing to the salient characteristics of the social policy arena, local adaptation of centrally designed policies may operate on distinctive logics. This study synthesizes the recent scholarship on subnational social policymaking and explains the significant interregional disparities in China's de facto urban poverty line – the eligibility standard of the urban minimum livelihood guarantee scheme, or dibao. Five research hypotheses are formulated for empirical examination: fiscal power effect, population effect, fiscal dependency effect, province effect and neighbour effect. Quantitative analysis of provincial-level panel data largely endorses the hypotheses. The remarkable subnational variations in dibao standards are explained by a salient constellation of fiscal and political factors that are embedded within the country's complex intergovernmental relations and fiscal arrangements. Both a race-to-the-top and a race-to-the-bottom may be fostered by distinctive mechanisms. The unique role of provincial governments as intermediary agents within China's political apparatus is illuminated in the social policy arena.
While a significant amount of literature has been published on the theoretical and empirical basis of task-based language teaching (TBLT) as an educational framework for teaching second and foreign languages, few studies have described entire task-based programs. This chapter reports on a case study in which we describe the inception, design, implementation and evaluation of a task-based, Spanish foreign language program at Qingdao University in China. The program is the result of an international partnership between an American university and a Chinese university, whereby Chinese students receive a dual degree in Spanish as a foreign language. A detailed needs analysis was conducted and informed the design of the program, which includes the application process, tasks, and several community-based initiatives. We also report on how we do teacher-training and professional development collaboration, our challenges, and how we have worked to overcome those challenges. All in all, teacher and student satisfaction, student job placement, and community engagement indicate that the program is meeting students’ real-world needs for Spanish and is serving the Qingdao community. We conclude by discussing implications for implementing a fully task-based program in China, the nation’s first university-level TBLT program for Spanish foreign language learning and teaching.
The mid-latitude Westerlies (MLW) are one of the most important atmospheric circulation systems in the Northern Hemisphere, exerting a huge influence on the climate of the region downwind, and thus on vegetation, water resources, and human wellbeing. However, the seasonal variation of the MLW during the Holocene is not yet been fully understood, especially when its contribution is the most important. Here, we used end-member (EM) modeling analysis of the grain-size distributions of a high-altitude aeolian sedimentary sequence (4452 m a.s.l.) from the Yarlung Zangbo River valley in the southern Tibetan Plateau to reveal variations in the winter MLW during the Holocene. Analysis of seasonal differences in modern atmospheric circulation suggests that the southern Tibetan Plateau was heavily influenced by the mid-latitude Westerlies at the 400, 500, and 600 hPa levels in winter, while it was seldom influenced at these levels in summer. Four grain-size end-members are identified, representing distinct aerodynamic environments, of which EM1 (modal grain size 8.1 μm) can be used as a proxy of the winter MLW. A reconstruction of the variation of the winter MLW during the Holocene based on EM1 revealed that a weaker winter MLW occurred during the Early to Middle Holocene, and a stronger winter MLW during the Middle to Late Holocene. Overall, we suggest that this change in the winter MLW was closely related to the insolation/temperature/pressure gradient between low and high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere.
This study examined the change in dementia literacy and dementia worry over a 5-year span among older Chinese Americans living in Arizona.
Design, setting, participants, and measurement:
This study used survey data collected among a purposive sample of 703 community-dwelling Chinese Americans aged 55 years or older living in the metropolitan areas of Phoenix, Arizona, from 2013 to 2017. The average age of participants was 73.1 (SD = 8.7) and 64.2% were female. Dementia literacy was measured by dementia knowledge (knowledge about Alzheimer’s disease and related dementia) and dementia beliefs (biased attitude toward dementia). Dementia worry was measured by assessing participants’ fear toward and concerns of developing dementia.
Regression analyses found dementia knowledge decreased (p < 0.05) and dementia beliefs remained unchanged (p > 0.05) from 2013 to 2017 among participants. Dementia worry only increased among those who lived alone. Significant correlates of dementia worry included low formal education level, depressive symptoms, and family conflict.
Public health education targeting older Chinese Americans should aim to enhance dementia knowledge and to rectify their biased attitudes toward dementia. Psychosocial education or counseling should be available to older Chinese Americans who present dementia worry, particularly for those who live alone. More studies using diverse study designs, such as a longitudinal design, are needed to examine change in dementia literacy and worry among this population.
Understanding factors associated with post-discharge sleep quality among COVID-19 survivors is important for intervention development.
This study investigated sleep quality and its correlates among COVID-19 patients 6 months after their most recent hospital discharge.
Healthcare providers at hospitals located in five different Chinese cities contacted adult COVID-19 patients discharged between 1 February and 30 March 2020. A total of 199 eligible patients provided verbal informed consent and completed the interview. Using score on the single-item Sleep Quality Scale as the dependent variable, multiple linear regression models were fitted.
Among all participants, 10.1% reported terrible or poor sleep quality, and 26.6% reported fair sleep quality, 26.1% reported worse sleep quality when comparing their current status with the time before COVID-19, and 33.7% were bothered by a sleeping disorder in the past 2 weeks. After adjusting for significant background characteristics, factors associated with sleep quality included witnessing the suffering (adjusted B = −1.15, 95% CI = −1.70, −0.33) or death (adjusted B = −1.55, 95% CI = −2.62, −0.49) of other COVID-19 patients during hospital stay, depressive symptoms (adjusted B = −0.26, 95% CI = −0.31, −0.20), anxiety symptoms (adjusted B = −0.25, 95% CI = −0.33, −0.17), post-traumatic stress disorders (adjusted B = −0.16, 95% CI = −0.22, −0.10) and social support (adjusted B = 0.07, 95% CI = 0.04, 0.10).
COVID-19 survivors reported poor sleep quality. Interventions and support services to improve sleep quality should be provided to COVID-19 survivors during their hospital stay and after hospital discharge.
Depressive symptoms and cognitive impairment often coexisted in the elderly. This study investigates the effect of late-life depressive symptoms on risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI).
A total of 14,231 dementia- and MCI free participants aged 60+ from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe were followed-up for 10 years to detect incident MCI. MCI was defined as 1.5 standard deviation (SD) below the mean of the standardized global cognition score. Depressive symptoms were assessed by a 12-item Europe-depression scale (EURO-D). Severity of depressive symptoms was grouped as: no/minimal (score 0–3), moderate (score 4–5), and severe (score 6–12). Significant depressive symptoms (SDSs) were defined as EURO-D score ≥ 4.
During an average of 8.2 (SD = 2.4)-year follow-up, 1,352 (9.50%) incident MCI cases were identified. SDSs were related to higher MCI risk (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.26, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.10–1.44) in total population, individuals aged 70+ (HR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.14–1.61) and women (HR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.08–1.51) in Cox proportional hazard model adjusting for confounders. In addition, there was a dose–response association between the severity of depressive symptoms and MCI incidence in total population, people aged ≥70 years and women (p-trend <0.001).
Significant depressive symptoms were associated with higher incidence of MCI in a dose–response fashion, especially among people aged 70+ years and women. Treating depressive symptoms targeting older population and women may be effective in preventing MCI.
We find that acquirers create higher shareholder returns when advised by investment banks with more experience in the target industry. This finding is stronger when acquirers face more difficulties understanding and evaluating the targets. Further analyses show that these banks help acquirers avoid overpaying for targets and thus capture more of the deal synergy rather than making deals generating higher synergy. Our results are robust to controlling for an exhaustive set of determinants of acquirer returns and an identification strategy that exploits exogenous shocks to the supply of investment banks with target-industry experience.
The relationship between SFA consumption and the risk of overweight/obesity remains unclear. Epidemiological evidence is lacking among Chinese population. This study aimed to investigate the association between individual dietary SFA intake and the risk of overweight/obesity in Chinese adults. Data from 8465 adults with BMI < 24 kg/m2 at entry in the China Health and Nutrition Survey (1989–2011) were analysed. Three-day 24-h dietary records were used to collect dietary data. Cox proportional hazards regression models were constructed to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI for the risk of developing overweight or obesity. A total of 3171 incident cases of overweight/obesity were identified (1649 for women and 1522 for men) during a median of 11 years of follow-up. Compared with the lowest category, the intake of total SFA (TSFA) showed no significant association with the risk of overweight/obesity. However, an increased risk of overweight/obesity was observed with a higher intake of medium chain SFA (MCSFA) (Ptrend = 0·004), especially decanoic acid (10:0) (HR was 1·25 (95 % CI 1·10, 1·42) comparing the highest category with the reference group; Ptrend < 0·001), whereas an inverse relationship was observed for hexanoic acid (6:0) consumption; compared with non-consumers, 6:0 intake was associated with 32 % lower risk of overweight/obesity (HR: 0·68 (95 % CI 0·56, 0·84); Ptrend < 0·001). Overall, the intake of subtypes of MCSFA but not TSFA was associated with the risk of overweight/obesity. Increasing hexanoic acid (6:0) and limiting decanoic acid (10:0) consumption may be protective for overweight/obesity among Chinese population.
The relationship between dietary nut intake and hyperuricemia risk remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between different nut intake and hyperuricemia risk with a cross-sectional study.
A semi-quantitative FFQ was adopted to collect dietary information. Biochemical and anthropometric parameters were measured by standard methods. Multivariate-adjusted logistic regression models were implemented to analyse the relationship between individual nut intake and hyperuricemia risk.
Qingdao University in Shandong Province, China.
During 2018–2019, a total of 14 056 undergraduates (6862 males and 7194 females) aged 15–25 years participated in the study.
After adjusting for multiple confounding factors, compared with the lowest quartile, the highest quartile intakes of pine nut (95 % CI (0·51, 0·98)) was significantly associated with 29 % reduction in hyperuricemia risk, the highest quartile intake of walnut (OR = 0·78; 95 % CI (0·58, 1·05)) was marginally negatively associated with hyperuricemia risk.
The present study showed that the relationships between intakes of different nuts and hyperuricemia risk were different. Increased dietary intakes of walnut and pine nut are negatively associated with the hyperuricemia.
This study analyzed the effects of the day of trophectoderm (TE) biopsy and blastocyst grade on clinical and neonatal outcomes. The results showed that the implantation and live birth rates of day 5 (D5) TE biopsy were significantly higher compared with those of D6 TE biopsy. The miscarriage rate of the former was lower than that of the latter, but there was no statistically significant difference. Higher quality blastocysts can achieve better implantation and live birth rates. Among good quality blastocysts, the implantation and live birth rates of D5 and D6 TE biopsy were not significantly different. Among fair quality and poor quality blastocysts, the implantation and live birth rates of D5 TE biopsy were significantly higher compared with those of D6 TE biopsy. Neither blastocyst grade nor the day of TE biopsy significantly affected the miscarriage rate. Neonatal outcomes, including newborn sex, gestational age, preterm birth, birth weight and low birth weight in the D5 and D6 TE biopsies were not significantly different. Both blastocyst grade and the day of TE biopsy must be considered at the same time when performing preimplantation genetic testing–frozen embryo transfer.
Schizophrenia has been primarily conceptualized as a disorder of high-order cognitive functions with deficits in executive brain regions. Yet due to the increasing reports of early sensory processing deficit, recent models focus more on the developmental effects of impaired sensory process on high-order functions. The present study examined whether this pathological interaction relates to an overarching system-level imbalance, specifically a disruption in macroscale hierarchy affecting integration and segregation of unimodal and transmodal networks.
We applied a novel combination of connectome gradient and stepwise connectivity analysis to resting-state fMRI to characterize the sensorimotor-to-transmodal cortical hierarchy organization (96 patients v. 122 controls).
We demonstrated compression of the cortical hierarchy organization in schizophrenia, with a prominent compression from the sensorimotor region and a less prominent compression from the frontal−parietal region, resulting in a diminished separation between sensory and fronto-parietal cognitive systems. Further analyses suggested reduced differentiation related to atypical functional connectome transition from unimodal to transmodal brain areas. Specifically, we found hypo-connectivity within unimodal regions and hyper-connectivity between unimodal regions and fronto-parietal and ventral attention regions along the classical sensation-to-cognition continuum (voxel-level corrected, p < 0.05).
The compression of cortical hierarchy organization represents a novel and integrative system-level substrate underlying the pathological interaction of early sensory and cognitive function in schizophrenia. This abnormal cortical hierarchy organization suggests cascading impairments from the disruption of the somatosensory−motor system and inefficient integration of bottom-up sensory information with attentional demands and executive control processes partially account for high-level cognitive deficits characteristic of schizophrenia.
Schizophrenia is considered a polygenic disorder. People with schizophrenia and those with genetic high risk of schizophrenia (GHR) have presented with similar neurodevelopmental deficits in hemispheric asymmetry. The potential associations between neurodevelopmental abnormalities and schizophrenia-related risk genes in both schizophrenia and those with GHR remains unclear.
To investigate the shared and specific alternations to the structural network in people with schizophrenia and those with GHR. And to identify an association between vulnerable structural network alternation and schizophrenia-related risk genes.
A total of 97 participants with schizophrenia, 79 participants with GHR and 192 healthy controls, underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scans at a single site. We used graph theory to characterise hemispheric and whole-brain structural network topological metrics. For 26 people in the schizophrenia group and 48 in the GHR group with DTI scans we also calculated their schizophrenia-related polygenic risk scores (SZ-PRSs). The correlations between alterations to the structural network and SZ-PRSs were calculated. Based on the identified genetic–neural association, bioinformatics enrichment was explored.
There were significant hemispheric asymmetric deficits of nodal efficiency, global and local efficiency in the schizophrenia and GHR groups. Hemispheric asymmetric deficit of local efficiency was significantly positively correlated with SZ-PRSs in the schizophrenia and GHR groups. Bioinformatics enrichment analysis showed that these risk genes may be linked to signal transduction, neural development and neuron structure. The schizophrenia group showed a significant decrease in the whole-brain structural network.
The shared asymmetric deficits in people with schizophrenia and those with GHR, and the association between anomalous asymmetry and SZ-PRSs suggested a vulnerability imaging marker regulated by schizophrenia-related risk genes. Our findings provide new insights into asymmetry regulated by risk genes and provides a better understanding of the genetic–neural pathological underpinnings of schizophrenia.