Genus: Bos Linnaeus, 1758
Species: Gaur Bos gaurus C. H. Smith, 1827
Names in other languages: French: Gaur; German: Gaur; Spanish: Gaur; Italian: Gaur; Adi: Tadok; Burmese: Peeoug; Kannada: Kaati, Kaadu kona, Kaadu yemme; Kannada-in Uttara Kannada District kulga: Gameya; Northern Udupi district, Kannada: Duddu; Lao: Meuay; Malay: Seladang; Mandarin: Da-E-Ni, 大额牛; Marathi: Raangawa; Malayalam: Kattu pothu; Nepali: Gauri gai; Tamil: Kaatu maadu; Vietnamese: Bò Tót; Telugu: Adavi dunna; Thai: Krating กระทง; Gonds: Moo.
Other common names: Indian bison
Note: although Bos frontalis (Lambert 1804), is often used as the scientific name for the gaur (see Grubb 2005), the International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature (2003) ruled that Bos gaurus be adopted as the name for the gaur despite Bos gaurus being antedated by Bos frontalis. Bos frontalis is used as the scientific name for the mithun, the domestic form of the gaur.
The gaur is a member of the Bovini clade (tribe), one of three clades (the other two being Boselaphini and Tragelaphini) recognized to be part of the larger clade (subfamily) Bovinae; the Bovinae along with the Antilopinae comprise the family Bovidae (Bibi 2007). Members of the bovine lineage were present by 8.9 Ma, appear to have originated in Asia, south of the Himalayas, and are understood to have expanded their ancestral dietary niche to include roughage in more open environments by diversifying and extending their range in response to the vegetation changes in the late Miocene (Bibi 2007). Using 15 complete or partially sequenced autosomal genes, MacEachern et al. (2009) identified three lineages in the Bovini clade after it split from the Boselaphini and Tragelaphini clades: the buffalo clade (Bubalus and Syncerus species), the banteng Bos javanicus and gaur clade, and the cattle clade.