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Nearly 1 year into the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, the first severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccines received emergency use authorisation and vaccination campaigns began. A number of factors can reduce the averted burden of cases and deaths due to vaccination. Here, we use a dynamic model, parametrised with Bayesian inference methods, to assess the effects of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) (such as social distancing, mask mandates, school and workplace closure), and vaccine administration and uptake rates on infections and deaths averted in the United States. We show that scenarios depicting higher compliance with NPIs avert more than 60% of infections and 70% of deaths during the period of vaccine administration, and that increasing the vaccination rate from 5 to 11 million people per week could increase the averted burden by more than one-third. These findings underscore the importance of maintaining NPIs and increasing vaccine administration rates.
The proliferation, metastasis and therapy response of tumour cells are tightly regulated by interaction among various signalling networks. The microRNAs (miRNAs) can bind to 3′-UTR of mRNA and down-regulate expression of target gene. The miRNAs target various molecular pathways in regulating biological events such as apoptosis, differentiation, angiogenesis and migration. The aberrant expression of miRNAs occurs in cancers and they have both tumour-suppressor and tumour-promoting functions. On the contrary, SOX proteins are capable of binding to DNA and regulating gene expression. SOX2 is a well-known member of SOX family that its overexpression in different cancers to ensure progression and stemness. The present review focuses on modulatory impact of miRNAs on SOX2 in affecting growth, migration and therapy response of cancers. The lncRNAs and circRNAs can function as upstream mediators of miRNA/SOX2 axis in cancers. In addition, NF-κB, TNF-α and SOX17 are among other molecular pathways regulating miRNA/SOX2 axis in cancer. Noteworthy, anti-cancer compounds including bufalin and ovatodiolide are suggested to regulate miRNA/SOX2 axis in cancers. The translation of current findings to clinical course can pave the way to effective treatment of cancer patients and improve their prognosis.
Delineating site-specific management zones within fields can be helpful in addressing spatial variability effects for adopting precision farming practices. A 3-year (2008/09 to 2010/11) field study was conducted at the Postgraduate Agricultural Research Station, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan, to identify the most important soil and landscape attributes influencing wheat grain yield, which can be used for delineating management zones. A total of 48 soil samples were collected from the top 300 mm of soil in 8-ha experimental field divided into regular grids of 24 × 67 m prior to sowing wheat. Soil and landscape attributes such as elevation, % of sand, silt and clay by volume, soil electrical conductivity (EC), pH, soil nitrogen (N) and soil phosphorus (P) were included in the analysis. Artificial neural network (ANN) analysis showed that % sand, % clay, elevation, soil N and soil EC were important variables for delineating management zones. Different management zone schemes ranging from three to six were developed and evaluated based on performance indicators using Management Zone Analyst (MZA V0·1) software. The fuzziness performance index (FPI) and normalized classification entropy NCE indices showed minimum values for a four management zone scheme, indicating its appropriateness for the experimental field. The coefficient of variation values of soil and landscape attributes decreased for each management zone within the four management zone scheme compared to the entire field, which showed improved homogeneity. The evaluation of the four management zone scheme using normalized wheat grain yield data showed distinct means for each management zone, verifying spatial variability effects and the need for its management. The results indicated that the approach based on ANN and MZA software analysis can be helpful in delineating management zones within the field, to promote precision farming practices effectively.
We have measured high spatial/depth resolution (2-3 [.proportional]m) thermal conductivity (κk) at 300K before and after plasma-induced effects on a series of n-GaN/sapphire (0001) samples fabricated by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) using a ThermoMicroscope'as scanning thermal microscope (SThM). The sample thicknesses were 50 ± 5 [.proportional]m and the carrier concentrations ~ 8 × 1016 cm-3, as determined by Hall effect measurements. The thermal conductivity before treatment was found to be in the 1.70 – 1.75 W/cm-K range, similar to that previously reported for HVPE material with this carrier concentration and thickness [D. I. Florescu et al., J. Appl. Phys. 88, 3295 (2000)]. The samples were processed under constant Ar gas flow and pressure fora fixed period of time (5 min). The only variable processing parameter was the DC bias voltage (125 – 500 V). After the initial 125 V procedure κ exhibited a decrease linear in the DC voltage in the investigated range. At 125 V the thermal conductivity was only slightly less (κ ~ 1.65 W/cm-K) than the untreated case. κ had dropped to ~ 0.3 W/cm-K for the 500 V situation. The implications of these results for device applications in the area of high power opto-electronics and high power electronics will be discussed.
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