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HMGR, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, is a major rate-limiting enzyme in mevalonate (MVA) pathway for isoprenoids and subsequent tanshinone biosynthesis in the Chinese traditional bulk herbal medicine Danshen, Salvia miltiorrhiza, mainly for cardiovascular disorders. In this paper, the genomic SmHMGR genes of 38 cultivated populations of S. miltiorrhiza collected in China were for the first time sequenced to reveal the genetic diversity and phylogeny. The SmHMGR gene was shown to be intron-free, 1650~1659 bp in complete CDS with the majority being 1656 bp, and two unique populations (W-FJLY-V-1 and W-SCHY-W-1) being 1659 and 1650 bp respectively. A total of 103 SNP variation sites were detected with a variation rate of 6.22%, most of which occurred in S. miltiorrhiza f. alba population W-SCHY-W-1; a total of 25 amino acid variation sites were found, of which 19 was in W-SCHY-W-1. The same four populations, W-SCHY-W-1, V-HBAG-V-1, V-JLCC-V-1 and S-NM-V-1 could be discriminated from the remaining 34 by both the SNP fingerprints and the deduced amino acid variation sites. Other or composite DNA markers are needed for better identification. The SmHMGR gene of white flower S. miltiorrhiza f. alba population W-SCHY-W-1 is especially rich in variations and worthy of further studies. Phylogenetic trees based on both the gene and the deduced amino acid sequences showed a very similar two-clade topological structure. This research enriched the content and the genetic means for the molecular identification, genetic diversity and phylogenetic studies of the cultivated S. miltiorrhiza populations, and laid a solid foundation for further related and in-depth investigations.
Two new genera and six new species of trilobites are systematically documented herein: Sinagnostus mirabilis new genus new species, Yanpingia punctata n. gen. n. sp., Illaenus taoyuanensis n. sp., Panderia striolatus n. sp., Nileus yichongqiaoensis n. sp., and Paratiresias peculiaris n. sp. The materials were collected from the Darriwilian (late Middle Ordovician) strata in the Upper Yangtze Region, South China. Also provided is an emended diagnosis of the genus Paratiresias based on the new species Paratiresias peculiaris, which is the oldest known species of this genus with an extremely narrow (sag. and exsag.) preglabellar field. Those Chinese species previously referred to Nanillaenus are reassigned to Illaenus sensu lato. These trilobites add new data for the Darriwilian trilobite macroevolution and show highly endemic to South China and the faunal exchanges between South China and Tarim, Kazakhstan, Alborz, as well as Sibumasu and North China.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: The importance of this study is to evaluate the responses following the exposure of opioid drugs in young adults to address the current opioid epidemics OBJECTIVES/GOALS: To compare the proportion of patients between 18 and 25 years of age, who develop an opioid abuse disorder following dental surgery, to those following other surgical procedures, when an opioid drug is used for acute postoperative pain control. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We fashioned an IRB-sponsored retrospective cohort study of patients, ages 18 to 25 years old, who presented for dental surgery or other medical surgical procedures, at Strong Memorial Hospital Medical Center, at the University of Rochester and received opioid drug treatments, for acute surgical pain management. Patients with the diagnosis of acute surgical pain were included in the study. However, those with chronic pain or other related abnormalities were excluded, even if a diagnosis of acute surgical pain was present in the electronic chart. The clinical data were retrieved from electronic medical records and NYS-iStop records. All statistics were significant at the level of <0.1 RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We identified 167 subjects, of whom, only 150 subjects met inclusion criteria (n=100) in dentistry and (n=50) in other medical specialties. Patients were followed up in a 7-year period. Most of the subjects were females (n=91), Caucasian (n=80), and lived in a suburban location (n=78). The most frequently prescribed opioid included hydrocodone (n=119). A significantly higher proportion (8.7%) of patients developed opioid abuse disorders in the control group, compared to 1% of subjects in the experimental group (p 0.02). Those in the control group received marginally significant higher doses of MMEs 447.2 +/-644.8 mg vs 306.2 +/-354.7mg in the experimental group (p 0.086). Those in the control group had significantly longer periods of opioid treatment 10 (+/-12) compared to 6(+/-6) days in the experimental group DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: It is paramount to evaluate the morphine milligram equivalents, and duration of opioid treatment given to the young population with acute surgical pain, to prevent opioid abuse disorders in this vulnerable cohort.
The objective of this study is to determine whether elevated circulating plasma catecholamine levels significantly impact opioid requirements during the first 24 hours postoperative period in individuals with acute surgical pain.
We retrospectively reviewed 15 electronic medical records (EMRs) from adults 18 years and older, with confirmed elevated plasma catecholamine levels (experimental) and 15 electronic health records (EHRs) from matched-controls for age, gender, race and type of surgery, with a follow up of 24 hours postoperatively.
The total morphine milligram equivalents (MMEs) requirements from the experimental group were not statistically different when compared with controls [44.1 (13 to 163) mg versus 47.5 (13 to 151) mg respectively; p 0.4965]. However, the intraoperative MMEs showed a significant difference, among the two groups; [(experimental) 32.5 (13. to 130) mg, (control) 15 (6.5 to 130) mg; p 0.0734]. The intraoperative dosage of midazolam showed a highly significant positive correlation to the total MMEs (p 0.0005). The subjects with both elevated plasma catecholamines and hypertension used significantly higher intraoperative MMEs compared to controls [34.1 (13 to 130) mg versus 15 (6.5 to 130) mg, respectively; p 0.0292)]. Those 51 years and younger, with elevated circulating levels of catecholamines, required significantly higher levels of both the postoperative MMEs [29.1 (0 to 45) mg versus 12 (0 to 71.5) mg; (p 0.0553)] and total MMEs [544.05 (13 to 81) mg versus 29.42 (13 to 92.5) mg; (p 0.00018), when compared to controls with history of nicotine and alcohol use.
This preliminary study evaluated a biologic factor, which have promising clinical usefulness for predicting analgesic requirements that can drive clinical decisions on acute surgical pain.
Identifying risk factors and mortality of individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) could have important implications for the clinical management of AD.
This pilot study aimed to examine the overall mortality of AD patients over a 10-year surveillance period in Shanghai, China. This study is an extension of our previous investigation on mortality of neurodegenerative diseases.
One hundred and thirty-two AD patients recruited from the memory clinics of two hospitals in Shanghai in 2007 were followed up until December 31, 2017 or death, representing a follow-up period of up to 10 years. Overall standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated, and predictors for survival at recruitment were estimated.
Sixty-seven patients had died by December 31, 2017, and the SMR at 10 years of follow-up was 1.225 (95% confidence interval 0.944–1.563). Employing Cox’s proportional hazard modeling, lower Mini-Mental State Examination score, and comorbid diabetes predicted poor survival in this cohort.
This pilot study suggests a similar survival trend of patients with AD compared to the general population in Shanghai urban region. Poor cognitive status and comorbid diabetes had a negative impact on the survival of AD patients.
High-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) of endosperm is mainly correlated with dough quality of bread wheat. In wheat cultivars, the HMW-GS genes with good processing quality are limited. However, there are an amount of excellent HMW-GS genes presenting in wheat-related species. In this work, two novel HMW-GS genes located on 1 M chromosome from Aegilops comosa have been cloned, designated as 1Mx2.1 and 1My12.1, respectively. The molecular structure of 1Mx2.1 and 1My12.1 showed high similarity with the published HMW-GS, but containing unique structures. 1Mx2.1 contained an extra cysteine residue in the repetitive domain, and 1My12.1 lost the conservative cysteine residue in the C-terminal domain. In vitro mixing test has indicated that 1Mx2.1 contributes excellent dough quality. The Ae. comosa can be used as an important genetic resource for wheat quality improvement.
This chapter presents work from a Canadian project exploring the potential of community-based participatory research for drawing out how communities play a role in resilient ageing. The project used creative approaches as part of the research method rather than as the subject of the study. The chapter focuses on the importance of place and the authors helpfully explore the nuances of ‘place’. This common interest in community resilience, ageing and place is one of the features that draw Chapters Five, Six and Seven together. Another is the action-oriented nature of the research. The research discussed here, much like Chapter Seven, was intended both to explore the views of older people in the community and, through that, to give those people a voice in local processes of housing development.
This chapter critically explores the potential of an action-oriented, community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to reveal ways in which communities can be resilient to the opportunities and challenges of ageing-in-place. In particular, the chapter considers the potential for using qualitative and creative methods to bring distinct viewpoints of local community stakeholders to the fore in terms of embedding aspects of place into the development of affordable housing for older adults. Community resilience refers here to the ‘existence, development and engagement of community resources by community members to thrive in an environment characterized by change, uncertainty, unpredictability and surprise’ (Magis, 2010, p 401). This is particularly important in the context of supporting ageing-in-place, where living in resilient communities can provide opportunities for civic participation, remaining active and sustaining community identity (Woolrych, 2017). Within the field of urban studies, there has been a shift towards a more transdisciplinary appreciation for community resilience, which combines the physical and psychosocial aspects of urban resilience (Coaffee, 2008). As such, the affordances of physical space play a role in supporting or constraining community resilience, particularly for older adults who may rely on the immediate neighbourhood for service supports and maintaining social roles (Hildon et al, 2009). This is important both in terms of the everyday life of the community and in responding to the challenges and opportunities of old age.
In this paper, the design of a graded honeycomb radar absorbing structure (RAS) is presented to realize both a wide bandwidth and absorption over a wide range of angles. For both transverse-electric and transverse-magnetic polarization, a fractional bandwidth of more than 118.6% is achieved for at least a 10 dB reflectivity reduction when the incident angle is <45°, an 8 dB reduction when the incident angle is <55° and a 5 dB reduction when the incident angle is <70°. Meanwhile the 10 dB reduction upper angle limit is approximately 30° for the uniform coating honeycomb RAS in the literature, which loses its absorbing ability when the incident angle is larger than 55°. Furthermore, the total thickness of our design is 10.7 mm, which is only approximately 1.29 times that of the theoretical limitation. The good agreement between the calculated, simulated, and measured results demonstrates the validity of this optimization.
Lignin-based phenol formaldehyde resin was synthesized using phenolated calcium lignosulfonate, and porous carbon with good wettability was prepared after carbonization and potassium hydroxide (KOH) activation. The results indicated that when the KOH to the carbonized sample mass ratio was 6:1, the prepared carbon had a rich porous structure and higher surface area, with a specific surface area of 1320.13 m2/g. Furthermore, the porous carbon exhibited a maximum specific capacitance of 204.88 F/g at a current density of 0.5 A/g in the potential range −1.0 to 0 V in a 6 M KOH solution and a low equivalent series resistance of 0.64 Ω. The phenolated calcium lignosulfonate-based phenol formaldehyde resin porous carbon demonstrated a favorable electric double-layer performance.
Investment in brighter sources and larger detectors has resulted in an explosive rise in the data collected at synchrotron facilities. Currently, human experts extract scientific information from these data, but they cannot keep pace with the rate of data collection. Here, we present three on-the-fly approaches—attribute extraction, nearest-neighbor distance, and cluster analysis—to quickly segment x-ray diffraction (XRD) data into groups with similar XRD profiles. An expert can then analyze representative spectra from each group in detail with much reduced time, but without loss of scientific insights. On-the-fly segmentation would, therefore, result in accelerated scientific productivity.
Babesiosis is an emerging tick-transmitted zoonosis prevalent in large parts of the world. This study was designed to determine the rates of Babesia microti infection among small rodents in Yunnan province, where human cases of babesiosis have been reported. Currently, distribution of Babesia in its endemic regions is largely unknown. In this study, we cataloged 1672 small wild rodents, comprising 4 orders, from nine areas in western Yunnan province between 2009 and 2011. Babesia microti DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in 4·3% (72/1672) of the rodents analyzed. The most frequently infected rodent species included Apodemus chevrieri and Niviventer fulvescens. Rodents from forests and shrublands had significantly higher Babesia infection rates. Genetic comparisons revealed that Babesia was most similar to the Kobe- and Otsu-type strains identified in Japan. A variety of rodent species might be involved in the enzootic maintenance and transmission of B. microti, supporting the need for further serological investigations in humans.
The phylogenetic and epidemiological relationships of 102 Burkholderia pseudomallei clinical isolates from different geographical and population sources in China were investigated by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The MLST data were analysed using the e-BURST algorithm, and an unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram was constructed based on the pair-wise differences in the allelic profiles of the strains. Forty-one sequence types (STs) were identified, of which eight were novel (ST1341, ST1345, ST1346, ST1347, ST1348, ST1349, ST1350, ST1351). No geographical-specific or host population-specific phylogenetic lineages were identified. ST46, ST50, ST55, ST58, ST70 and ST1095 predominated, but ~44% of isolates were assigned to 45 STs illustrating high genetic diversity in the strain collection. Additionally, the phylogenetic relationships of the dominant STs in China showed significant linkeage with B. pseudomallei isolates from Thailand. Analysis of the gmhD allele suggests high genetic variation in B. pseudomallei in China.
The unique properties of silicon oxide materials, no matter intrinsic or doped, utilized in thin film solar cells (TFSCs) in the area of photovoltaic (PV) are making TFSCs one of the most attractive photovoltaic technologies for the development of high-performing electricity production units to be integrated in everyday life. In comparison to other silicon materials, the particular diphasic structure of silicon oxide materials, in which hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) crystallites are surrounded by an oxygen-rich hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) phase, causes them present excellent photoelectrical material properties, such as a low-parasitic absorption in the broadband spectral range, independent controllability of longitudinal and lateral conductivity, refractive indices (3.5-2.0), band gap (2.0-2.6 eV) and conductivity tenability (with orders of 1-10-9 S/cm) with oxygen doping, and so on. Various types of silicon oxide materials, including intrinsic, p- or n- type, further applied in TFSCs have also played significant roles in improving the efficiency of various types of single-, dual-, and triple-junction thin-film solar cells from both the optical and electrical points of view. In this paper, we present our latest progress in studying the performance improvement role of intrinsic or doped silicon oxide materials in pin-type a-Si:H, a-SiGe:H, and μc-Si:H single-junction solar cells. By effectively tuning the band gap values of intrinsic a-SiOx:H materials with oxygen doping and adopting the layers with a suitable band gap (1.86 eV) as the P/I buffer layers of a-Si:H solar cells fabricated on metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) boron-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:B) substrates, a significant Voc increases up to 909 mV and an excellent external quantum efficiency (EQE) response of 75% at the 400 nm typical wavelength can be achieved by matching the band gap discontinuity between the p-type nc-SiOx:H window and a-Si:H intrinsic layers. The serious leakage current characteristics of pin-type narrow-gap (Eg<1.5 eV) a-SiGe:H single-junction solar cells can also be finely tuned by integrating an n-type μc-SiOx:H layer with a small oxygen content in addition to improving the long-wavelength response, an effective approach gives rise to the highest FF of 70.62% for pin-type a-SiGe:H single-junction solar cells with an average band gap of 1.48 eV. In addition, our studies proved that the application of p-type μc-SiOx:H window layers in μc-Si:H single-junction solar cells can effectively improve the short-wavelength light coupling by suppressing the parasitic absorption and promoting the anti-reflectivity with a graded refractive index profile. On the basis of the optimum single-junction solar cells with omnipotent silicon oxide materials, an initial efficiency of 16.07% has been achieved for pin-type a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H/μc-Si:H triple-junction solar cells with an active area of 0.25 cm2. The omnipotent properties of silicon oxide layers in TFSCs, including effective optical coupling and trapping, suitability in compensating for the band gap discontinuity, the shunt-quenching capacity, and so on, make them likely to be extended to other types of solar cells such as polycrystalline chalcopyrite Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and perovskite-sensitized solar cells, opening up new opportunities for acquiring solar cells with higher performance.
Probiotics are normal inhabitants of the gastrointestinal tract of man and are widely considered to exert a number of beneficial effects in many diseases. But the mechanism by which they modulate the immune system is poorly understood. The present study was planned to explore the anti-allergic effect of Lactobacillus gasseri on a mouse model of allergic asthma. Dermatophoides pteronyssinus (Der p) sensitised and challenged BALB/c mice were orally administered via oral administration with three different doses of L. gasseri (low, 1 × 106 colony-forming units (CFU); medium, 2 × 106 CFU; high, 4 × 106 CFU), in 700 μl of PBS daily, starting from 2 weeks before Der p sensitisation for 4 weeks. After the allergen challenge, airway responsiveness to methacholine, influx of inflammatory cells to the lung, and cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids and splenocytes culture were assessed. Our results showed that oral administration of a high dose of L. gasseri (4 × 106 CFU) decreased airway responsiveness to methacholine, attenuated the influx of inflammatory cells to the airways and reduced the levels of TNF-α, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) and IL-17A in BAL fluids of Der p-sensitised and -challenged mice. Moreover, L. gasseri decreased IL-17A production in transforming growth factor-α and IL-6 stimulated splenocytes and cell numbers of IL-17 producing alveolar macrophages in L. gasseri-treated mice as compared to non-treated, Der p-sensitised and -challenged mice. In conclusion, oral administration with L. gasseri can attenuate major characteristics of allergen-induced airway inflammation and IL-17 pro-inflammatory immune response in a mouse model of allergic asthma, which may have clinical implication in the preventive or therapeutic potential in allergic asthma.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Bifidobacterium adolescentis (Bif) supplementation on visceral fat accumulation and insulin sensitivity of the metabolic syndrome in HF-diet-fed rats. Adult male Wistar rats (n 10 per group) were fed four different experimental diets for 12 weeks as follows: standard diet; high-fat (HF) diet; a mix of HF diet and Bif; a mix of standard diet and Bif. Liver, mesenteric fat, epididymal fat, retroperitoneal fat, and inguinal fat, pancreas and triceps surae in all four groups of the rats were weighed, while liver steatosis and insulin sensitivity were evaluated at the end point of the study. As the number of intestinal Bifidobacterium species decreased obviously, fat pad weight and body weight increased significantly in the HF group compared with in the other three groups (P <0·05). Addition of Bif led to a reduction in body weight and fat pad weight (P <0·05). With an increase in liver weight, more severe steatosis of hepatocytes was observed in the HF group compared with in the other three groups. A significant decrease of the glucose infusion rate and pancreas weight was found in the HF group (P <0·05). This deleterious effect was alleviated when Bif was added to the diets. Bifidobacterium supplementation ameliorated visceral fat accumulation and insulin sensitivity of the metabolic syndrome in HF-diet-fed rats.
Transgenes integrated into mammalian cells are silenced rapidly. This phenomenon correlates with repressed chromatin structure marked by histone hypoacetylation. This study investigated the effect of trichostatin A (TSA; a histone-deacetylase inhibitor) on EGFP expression in transfected cells and embryonic development after somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Porcine adult fibroblasts were transfected with a pEGFP-C1 vector. Then transfected cells, donor cells for SCNT, were pretreated with TSA, with the untreated cells being used as the control. Expression of EGFP in donor cells and reconstructed embryos was detected when exposed to blue light. Results showed that the percentage of EGFP-positive cells significantly increased when the transfected cells were treated with TSA and the increased expression of EGFP was sustained to at least the morula stage. In addition, the cytotoxic effect of TSA on the transfected cells was dose dependent. In conclusion, TSA can rescue the silenced EGFP gene. Even after transferring the TSA-treated cells to enucleated recipient oocytes, TSA retained the ability to rescue a silenced EGFP gene. In addition, TSA had an impact on cell proliferation.
Schistosoma japonicum remains highly endemic in many counties in China and has recently re-emerged, to a large extent, in previously controlled areas. To test the hypothesis that small rodents and less agriculturally important domestic animals such as dogs and cats may play an important role in the transmission and potential re-emergence of this disease, an annual investigation of S. japonicum among humans, domestic animals and rodents, combined with detailed surveys of the snail intermediate host, was performed across 3 marshland villages and 3 hilly villages in Anhui province of China over 2 consecutive years. The highest infection prevalence and intensity observed across all mammals was in rodents in the hilly region; while in the marshland, bovines were suspected as the main reservoirs. However, relatively high infection prevalence levels were also found in dogs and cats in both regions. Such results may have implications for the current human- and bovine-oriented control policy for this medically and veterinarily important disease, particularly within the hilly regions of mainland China.
In this study, the mechanical properties of human dental structures have been investigated by using instrumented nanoindentation. Immersion in solutions containing Streptococcus mutans, which is the principal cause of dental caries, was applied to tooth specimens to clarify its effect on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the dental structures. With an extended time of up to 16 h, the pH value of the S. mutans solutions dropped from 7.3 to 5.8. Therefore, after immersion in the S. mutans solutions for 16 h, slight erosions of the dental structures began; after 64 h, severe tooth decay occurred with obviously etched dental features. After 128 h, the elastic modulus of enamel and dentine dropped to 85 and 67%, respectively, of the original values of untreated specimens, and the hardness dropped to 88 and 55%, respectively.