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The target backsheath field acceleration mechanism is one of the main mechanisms of laser-driven proton acceleration (LDPA) and strongly depends on the comprehensive performance of the ultrashort ultra-intense lasers used as the driving sources. The successful use of the SG-II Peta-watt (SG-II PW) laser facility for LDPA and its applications in radiographic diagnoses have been manifested by the good performance of the SG-II PW facility. Recently, the SG-II PW laser facility has undergone extensive maintenance and a comprehensive technical upgrade in terms of the seed source, laser contrast and terminal focus. LDPA experiments were performed using the maintained SG-II PW laser beam, and the highest cutoff energy of the proton beam was obviously increased. Accordingly, a double-film target structure was used, and the maximum cutoff energy of the proton beam was up to 70 MeV. These results demonstrate that the comprehensive performance of the SG-II PW laser facility was improved significantly.
At present, the social economy is in a period of fast-paced change in China, with various modes of production and life evolving and emerging. The transfer of agricultural land is the transformation of the utilization mode of the main factors of production in rural areas, and it is one of the contents of the social and economic reform in rural areas. In 2021, the area of rural land transfer is up to 3.7×1011 m2 in China, an increase of 4.3% over the previous year. 1,239 counties (cities, districts) and 18,731 townships have established agricultural land management rights transfer centers to provide services such as policy consultation, information release, and contract signing for both sides of the transfer. Farmers are the subjects of agricultural land management and transfer. Their behaviors are affected by their psychology to some extent. In the long-term, dynamic, and gradual process of agricultural land transfer, it is particularly important to respect farmers’ wishes, pay attention to farmers’ psychology, and guide farmers’ behavior. However, only a few written contracts were signed. Most are verbal agreements of spontaneous or collective land transfers. The verbal agreements auto-execute to some extent within certain limits. The goals of farmers in farmland transfer are diversified, and their cognition, willingness and psychological identity affect the performance of the contract and the effect of transfer.
Subjects and Methods
The psychological contract of agricultural land transfer can be defined as the transferor and transferee of agricultural land transfer. Through a certain psychological suggestion mode, through the subjective cognition and understanding of the rights and obligations of both parties, rather than the direct explicit expression, a contract relationship of rights and obligations is formed. The party awarding contract and the contractor are the subjects of agricultural land transfer. Therefore, the subjects of the psychological contract of agricultural land transfer include farmers, village collectives and enterprises, all of whom have equal status, forming their own psychological contracts. The forming process of the psychological contract of agricultural land transfer includes four steps. Step one is cognition and judgment. Both parties to the transfer are aware of and judge their own rights and obligations based on external environmental information and their own circumstances. Step two is psychological expectations. Before information is transmitted, both sides of the transmission transform cognition and judgment into psychological expectations. The third step is to convey psychological expectations. Both sides of transfer transmit psychological expectations by means of direct patterns, such as oral form and written form, and implicit ways, such as perception and comprehension. Step four is the formation of the psychological contract. Both sides of transfer reciprocally admit information of psychological expectations transmitted in implicit ways, forming psychological contracts. If they can’t come to an agreement on psychological contracts, a new four-step cycle is entered.
The forming of the psychological contract of agricultural land transfer is shown in Figure 1. First, farmers’ behavior background, such as the experiences of land lease and transfer, the targets of land transfer and education, has an effect on the building of psychological contracts and its type. On the one hand, the farmers who have the experience of land transfer and get high benefits from it are much more motivated than those who don’t have that experience or ever have dissension while transferring. On the other hand, the targets of transfer and the education level of farmers affect the type of psychological contracts. Second, Farmers’ subjective norms, mainly reflected in the difference in folk customs, will form various communication modes and take different measures to deal with breaching contracts while transferring. Third, farmers’ behavior cognition reflects in their comprehension of the capability of executing contracts, including bargaining power, decision-making level and managing modes of the rent. The ability of behavior cognition and control of farmers has a positive influence on their behavior intention and happened.
According to the above results, in order to promote the reposeful transfer and orderly development of agricultural land, the following suggestions are proposed: The first is to improve the agricultural land transfer policy system, establish and improve the institutional environment for agricultural land transfer, create conditions for the establishment of farmers’ behavioral psychological contracts in the process of agricultural land transfers, and guide farmers to establish relationship psychological contracts. The second is to improve the market system, properly cultivate and develop agricultural land transfer intermediaries, reduce transaction costs, and reduce the probability of farmers’ psychological contracts being broken. The third is to guide farmers to establish a positive agricultural land transfer psychology based on their resource endowments such as labor force quality and cultural quality, and encourage farmers to make agricultural land transfer decisions such as subcontracting, leasing, reselling, and interchanging.
Psychological contracts of agricultural land transfer forming
Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is one of the rate-determining enzymes in the hydrolysis of TAG, playing a crucial role in lipid metabolism. However, the role of HSL-mediated lipolysis in systemic nutrient homoeostasis has not been intensively understood. Therefore, we used CRISPR/Cas9 technique and Hsl inhibitor (HSL-IN-1) to establish hsla-deficient (hsla-/-) and Hsl-inhibited zebrafish models, respectively. As a result, the hsla-/- zebrafish showed retarded growth and reduced oxygen consumption rate, accompanied with higher mRNA expression of the genes related to inflammation and apoptosis in liver and muscle. Furthermore, hsla-/- and HSL-IN-1-treated zebrafish both exhibited severe fat deposition, whereas their expressions of the genes related to lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation were markedly reduced. The TLC results also showed that the dysfunction of Hsl changed the whole-body lipid profile, including increasing the content of TG and decreasing the proportion of phospholipids. In addition, the systemic metabolic pattern was remodelled in hsla-/- and HSL-IN-1-treated zebrafish. The dysfunction of Hsl lowered the glycogen content in liver and muscle and enhanced the utilisation of glucose plus the expressions of glucose transporter and glycolysis genes. Besides, the whole-body protein content had significantly decreased in the hsla-/- and HSL-IN-1-treated zebrafish, accompanied with the lower activation of the mTOR pathway and enhanced protein and amino acid catabolism. Taken together, Hsl plays an essential role in energy homoeostasis, and its dysfunction would cause the disturbance of lipid catabolism but enhanced breakdown of glycogen and protein for energy compensation.
In vitro fertilization (IVF) has wide application in human infertility and animal breeding. It is also used for research on reproduction, fertility and development. However, IVF embryos are still inferior to their in vivo counterparts. Some substances in seminal plasma appear to have important roles in embryo development, and during the traditional IVF procedure, the seminal plasma is washed away. In this study, extracellular vesicles (EVs) were concentrated from seminal plasma by ultracentrifugation, visualized using transmission electron microscopy, and particle size distributions and concentrations were determined with a NanoSight particle analyzer. We found particles of various sizes in the seminal plasma, the majority having diameters ranging from 100 to 200 nm and concentrations of 6.07 × 1010 ± 2.91 × 109 particles/ml. Addition of seminal plasma EVs (SP-EVs) to the IVF medium with mouse oocytes and sperm significantly increased the rate of blastocyst formation and the inner cell mass (ICM)/trophectoderm (TE) cell ratio, and reduced the apoptosis of blastocysts. Our findings provide new insights into the role of seminal plasma EVs in mediating embryo development and it suggests that SP-EVs may be used to improve the developmental competence of IVF embryos, which has important significance for assisted reproduction in animals and humans.
Poor utilisation efficiency of carbohydrate always leads to metabolic phenotypes in fish. The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in carbohydrate degradation. Whether the intestinal bacteria could alleviate high-carbohydrate diet (HCD)-induced metabolic phenotypes in fish remains unknown. Here, a strain affiliated to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens was isolated from the intestine of Nile tilapia. A basal diet (CON), HCD or HCD supplemented with B. amy SS1 (HCB) was used to feed fish for 10 weeks. The beneficial effects of B. amy SS1 on weight gain and protein accumulation were observed. Fasting glucose and lipid deposition were decreased in the HCB group compared with the HCD group. High-throughput sequencing showed that the abundance of acetate-producing bacteria was increased in the HCB group relative to the HCD group. Gas chromatographic analysis indicated that the concentration of intestinal acetate was increased dramatically in the HCB group compared with that in the HCD group. Glucagon-like peptide-1 was also increased in the intestine and serum of the HCB group. Thus, fish were fed with HCD, HCD supplemented with sodium acetate at 900 mg/kg (HLA), 1800 mg/kg (HMA) or 3600 mg/kg (HHA) diet for 8 weeks, and the HMA and HHA groups mirrored the effects of B. amy SS1. This study revealed that B. amy SS1 could alleviate the metabolic phenotypes caused by HCD by enriching acetate-producing bacteria in fish intestines. Regulating the intestinal microbiota and their metabolites might represent a powerful strategy for fish nutrition modulation and health maintenance in future.
A high-carbohydrate diet could achieve a protein-sparing effect, but it may cause negative impacts on the growth condition of fish due to their poor utilisation ability of carbohydrate. How to reduce the adverse effects caused by a high-carbohydrate diet is important for the development of aquaculture. In the present study, we aimed to identify whether inulin could attenuate the metabolic syndrome caused by a high-carbohydrate diet in fish. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) (1·19 (sd 0·01) g) were supplied with 35 % carbohydrate (CON), 45 % carbohydrate (HC) and 45 % carbohydrate + 5 g/kg inulin (HCI) diets for 10 weeks. The results showed that addition of inulin improved the survival rate when fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila, indicating that inulin had an immunostimulatory effect. Compared with the HC group, the HCI group had lower lipid accumulation in liver and the gene expression analyses indicated that addition of inulin down-regulated genes related to lipogenesis and up-regulated genes relevant to β-oxidation significantly (P < 0·05). Higher liver glycogen and glucose tolerance were found in the HCI group compared with the HC group (P < 0·05). These results indicated that inulin could alleviate the metabolic syndrome induced by a high-carbohydrate diet. Furthermore, addition of inulin to a high-carbohydrate diet changed the intestinal bacterial composition and significantly increased the concentration of acetic acid and propionic acid in fish gut which have the potential to increase pathogen resistance and regulate metabolic characteristics in fish. Collectively, our results demonstrated a possible causal role for the gut microbiome in metabolic improvements induced by inulin in fish.
The present study was conducted to evaluate the impact of dietary fully oxidised β-carotene (OxBC, C40H60O15) supplementation during the perinatal period on immune status and productivity in a sow model. At day 85 of pregnancy, 150 sows were allocated to one of three dietary treatments with fifty sows per treatment. The three experimental diets were supplemented with 0, 4 or 8 mg/kg OxBC in the basal diet. The feeding trial was conducted from gestation day 85 until day 21 of lactation. Dietary OxBC supplementation greatly enhanced colostrum IgM, IgA and IgG levels, and the IgM and IgG content of 14-d milk. Dietary OxBC supplementation decreased the TNF-α and IL-8 levels in colostrum, as well as the TNF-α and IL-18 levels in 14-d milk. There was also a tendency towards an increase in the soluble CD14 level in 14-d milk. Although dietary treatments did not affect average daily feed intake nor backfat thickness loss during lactation, dietary OxBC supplementation tended to enhance litter weight and individual piglet weight at weaning. There was a trend towards increased lactose concentration in 14-d milk with increasing dietary OxBC. It is concluded that dietary supplementation with OxBC during the perinatal period enhances the lactose concentration of sow milk and the immune status of sows, which is reflected by improved cytokine status and immunoglobulin concentrations in colostrum and milk, and thus tending to increase litter weight and individual piglet weight at weaning. The results also provide a scientific nutritional reference for perinatal mothers due to the biological similarity between pigs and humans.
l-Carnitine is essential for mitochondrial β-oxidation and has been used as a lipid-lowering feed additive in humans and farmed animals. d-Carnitine is an optical isomer of l-carnitine and dl-carnitine has been widely used in animal feeds. However, the functional differences between l- and d-carnitine are difficult to study because of the endogenous l-carnitine background. In the present study, we developed a low-carnitine Nile tilapia model by treating fish with a carnitine synthesis inhibitor, and used this model to investigate the functional differences between l- and d-carnitine in nutrient metabolism in fish. l- or d-carnitine (0·4 g/kg diet) was fed to the low-carnitine tilapia for 6 weeks. l-Carnitine feeding increased the acyl-carnitine concentration from 3522 to 10 822 ng/g and alleviated the lipid deposition from 15·89 to 11·97 % in the liver of low-carnitine tilapia. However, as compared with l-carnitine group, d-carnitine feeding reduced the acyl-carnitine concentration from 10 822 to 5482 ng/g, and increased lipid deposition from 11·97 to 20·21 % and the mRNA expression of the genes involved in β-oxidation and detoxification in the liver. d-Carnitine feeding also induced hepatic inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis. A metabolomic investigation further showed that d-carnitine feeding increased glycolysis, protein metabolism and activity of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Thus, l-carnitine can be physiologically utilised in fish, whereas d-carnitine is metabolised as a xenobiotic and induces lipotoxicity. d-Carnitine-fed fish demonstrates increases in peroxisomal β-oxidation, glycolysis and amino acid degradation to maintain energy homeostasis. Therefore, d-carnitine is not recommended for use in farmed animals.
Astrophysical collisionless shocks are amazing phenomena in space and astrophysical plasmas, where supersonic flows generate electromagnetic fields through instabilities and particles can be accelerated to high energy cosmic rays. Until now, understanding these micro-processes is still a challenge despite rich astrophysical observation data have been obtained. Laboratory astrophysics, a new route to study the astrophysics, allows us to investigate them at similar extreme physical conditions in laboratory. Here we will review the recent progress of the collisionless shock experiments performed at SG-II laser facility in China. The evolution of the electrostatic shocks and Weibel-type/filamentation instabilities are observed. Inspired by the configurations of the counter-streaming plasma flows, we also carry out a novel plasma collider to generate energetic neutrons relevant to the astrophysical nuclear reactions.
(1 − x)Ba(Mg1/3Ta2/3)O3–xBa(Co1/3Nb2/3)O3 (BMT–BCN, x = 0.0, 0.20, 0.25, 0.30, 0.40) ceramics were prepared using the traditional solid-state reaction method. X-ray diffraction patterns have shown that the intensities of (001) and (100) super-lattices decrease with the increase in the BCN content. Seven main Raman vibrational modes are observed, assigned, and illustrated, in particular. Raman shifts of Eg(O) modes and the FWHM values of F2g(O)/A1g(O) modes have close relationship with the dielectric properties. The calculated values by the four-parameter semiquantum model based on IR reflectivity match well with the measured data (@3.8 GHz), which means that most of dielectric contribution to the system may be ascribed to the absorption of structural phononic oscillations at the infrared region, and the contribution from the scattering of the defective phonons is small. The contributions of each vibrational mode on the dielectric responses were investigated in detail, indicating that the low-frequency modes (A2u(1) and Eu(1)) have a decisive role to the dielectric properties.
In this paper, we present the use of the orthogonal spline collocation method for the semi-discretization scheme of the one-dimensional coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations. This method uses the Hermite basis functions, by which physical quantities are approximated with their values and derivatives associated with Gaussian points. The convergence rate with order and the stability of the scheme are proved. Conservation properties are shown in both theory and practice. Extensive numerical experiments are presented to validate the numerical study under consideration.
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