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The Dazl (deleted in azoospermia-like) gene encodes an RNA-binding protein containing an RNA recognition motif (RRM) and a DAZ motif. Dazl is essential for gametogenesis in vertebrates. In this study, we report the cloning of Dazl cDNA from Cynops cyanurus. Ccdazl mRNA showed a germline-specific expression pattern as expected. Ccdazl expression gradually decreased during oogenesis, suggesting that it may be involved in oocyte development. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Ccdazl protein shares conserved motifs/domains with Dazl proteins from other species. Cloning of Ccdazl provides a new tool to carry out comparative studies of germ cell development in amphibians.
Tremendous progress has been made in the field of ferroptosis since this regulated cell death process was first named in 2012. Ferroptosis is initiated upon redox imbalance and driven by excessive phospholipid peroxidation. Levels of multiple intracellular nutrients (iron, selenium, vitamin E, and coenzyme Q10) are intimately related to the cellular antioxidant system and participate in the regulation of ferroptosis. Dietary intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) regulates ferroptosis by directly modifying the fatty acid composition in cell membranes. In addition, amino acids and glucose (energy stress) manipulate the ferroptosis pathway through the nutrient-sensitive kinases mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Understanding the molecular interaction between nutrient signals and ferroptosis sensors might help in the identification of the roles of ferroptosis in normal physiology and in the development of novel pharmacological targets for the treatment of ferroptosis-related diseases.
This article uses Taiwan as an example to examine how families manage work and care when the government and workplace provide limited support. Many Taiwanese households employ live-in migrant care workers to negotiate care responsibilities and adults’ paid jobs. Based on interviews with employers of live-in migrant care workers and workers, the findings demonstrate that daughters-in-law and occasionally daughters and sons become employers of live-in migrant care workers because of the limitation of public care services and lack of support they receive in seeking to combine paid work and family care responsibility. Even after employing migrant workers, women retain greater care responsibility in daily practices than their husbands. Hiring live-in migrant care workers also imposes risks to all parties involved in the processes of organising, coordinating, and providing care due to the uncertainty of care quality and the nature of care work.
The capability of aircraft tyres to sustain landing impact loads is essential for flight landing safety. Hence, the development of a reliable experimental database is necessary to validate numerical models. The experimental data on aircraft tyre landing impact in the public literature are somewhat sparse. This paper describes a detailed design rig for aircraft tyre impact testing. A finite element model is then created and simulated using a finite element tool (ABAQUS). Inflation and static load simulations are analysed based on the FE tyre model to confirm its reliability. Comparison of experimental measurements with the results reveals that the model can predict the significant features of aircraft tyre impact in a landing scenario. Very little experimental data are publicly available to verify aircraft tyre models. Therefore, the experimental data in this paper fill this gap in the literature.
This study was performed to improve production efficiency at the level of recipient pig and donor nuclei of transgenic cloned pigs used for xenotransplantation. To generate transgenic pigs, human endothelial protein C receptor (hEPCR) and human thrombomodulin (hTM) genes were introduced using the F2A expression vector into GalT–/–/hCD55+ porcine neonatal ear fibroblasts used as donor cells and cloned embryos were transferred to the sows and gilts. Cloned fetal kidney cells were also used as donor cells for recloning to increase production efficiency. Pregnancy and parturition rates after embryo transfer and preimplantation developmental competence were compared between cloned embryos derived from adult and fetal cells. Significantly higher parturition rates were shown in the group of sows (50.0 vs. 4.1%), natural oestrus (20.8 vs. 0%), and ovulated ovary (16.7 vs. 5.6%) compared with gilt, induced and non-ovulated, respectively (P < 0.05). When using gilts as recipients, final parturitions occurred in only the fetal cell groups and significantly higher blastocyst rates (15.1% vs. 21.3%) were seen (P < 0.05). Additionally, gene expression levels related to pluripotency were significantly higher in the fetal cell group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, sows can be recommended as recipients due to their higher efficiency in the generation of transgenic cloned pigs and cloned fetal cells also can be recommended as donor cells through correct nuclear reprogramming.
This study analyzed the effects of the day of trophectoderm (TE) biopsy and blastocyst grade on clinical and neonatal outcomes. The results showed that the implantation and live birth rates of day 5 (D5) TE biopsy were significantly higher compared with those of D6 TE biopsy. The miscarriage rate of the former was lower than that of the latter, but there was no statistically significant difference. Higher quality blastocysts can achieve better implantation and live birth rates. Among good quality blastocysts, the implantation and live birth rates of D5 and D6 TE biopsy were not significantly different. Among fair quality and poor quality blastocysts, the implantation and live birth rates of D5 TE biopsy were significantly higher compared with those of D6 TE biopsy. Neither blastocyst grade nor the day of TE biopsy significantly affected the miscarriage rate. Neonatal outcomes, including newborn sex, gestational age, preterm birth, birth weight and low birth weight in the D5 and D6 TE biopsies were not significantly different. Both blastocyst grade and the day of TE biopsy must be considered at the same time when performing preimplantation genetic testing–frozen embryo transfer.
The control of dynamic spatial posture for cantilever roadheader is one of the vital problems for intelligent mining, which directly affect the forming quality of cutting tunnel. Therefore, this paper proposed an intelligent optimal combination compensation strategy to adjust the real-time dynamic posture of cantilever roadheader. First, based on the topological structure analysis of cantilever roadheader, the structural loop compensation model for spatial posture deviation was established. Afterward, the principal component analysis (PCA) and multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MPSO) algorithm were applied to improve the analysis speed and accuracy of posture deviation. Finally, parallel dynamic cooperative optimization (PDCO) strategy was combined to achieve the accurate adjusting of posture deviation. The actual experimental and application results indicate that the intelligent optimal combination compensation strategy proposed in the paper can significantly improve the accuracy of the cutting tunnel. The intelligent optimal compensation strategy proposed in this paper transforms the transient spatial posture deviation into structural loop compensation, and implements by parallel cooperative strategy, finally to realize the fast analysis and efficient implementation of spatial dynamic posture deviation for cantilever roadheader during cutting process. The work of this paper provides an effective reference for intelligent deep and remote underground mining, and it can also be applied to effective control of dynamic spatial posture for intelligent engineering machinery products.
This chapter examines Edith Maude Eaton’s (Sui Sin Far’s) two Caribbean tales, “Away Down in Jamaica” (1898) and “The Sugar Cane Baby” (1910), particularly the ways that the tropes of marriage and family illuminate the author’s evolving racial consciousness. By reading the stories in relation to the transnational history of Euro-American imperial and capitalist dominance, this chapter analyzes how these two stories bring to the fore the problems of colonial intrusion and imposition, both violent and benevolent, economic and moral. In this way, they call for “undoing whiteness” and “complicating Chineseness” through critical reframing of the conditions of slavery, forced migrations, and (neo)colonialisms that link the racialization of the Chinese in North America and Africans in the Caribbean that undergird imperial narratives of marriage and family. As such, Eaton’s use of these tropes in these two Caribbean tales enables her to extend her sympathy to both white imperialists and Afro-Creoles and also to carve out space for critiquing Euro-American colonial and imperial violence even as she negotiates her conflicting affinities to and distance from both the white elites and racialized peoples.
Separating and reattaching turbulent flows induced by a forward-facing step subjected to an incoming fully developed turbulent channel flow are studied using direct numerical simulation. The step height is one quarter of the channel height, and the Reynolds number based on friction velocity and half-channel height at the inlet is 180. The three-dimensional spatio-temporal characteristics of separation bubbles upstream and downstream of the step are analysed with particular attention to the effects of impinging hairpin structures and the topology of principal stretching. Immediately upstream of the step, the fluctuating vorticity parallel to the mean streamlines is significant. On the frontal surface of the step, strong spanwise skin friction appears in the form of alternating positive and negative values in vertical strips. Over the step, the principal stretching switches orientation along a curve emanating from the leading edge, which is termed the principal stretching line (PSL). The reverse flows upstream and downstream of the step possess dominant and harmonic frequencies that mirror those of the incoming flow. As a hairpin structure leans over the step, the associated vorticity is deformed by the principal stretching. Specifically, PSL marks the lower bound of the deformed hairpin legs, and an opposite-signed pair of counter-rotating quasi-streamwise vortices are induced near the top surface of the step. Consequently, the separation bubbles upstream of and over the step are enlarged and suppressed, respectively. For a sufficiently strong hairpin structure interacting with the step, an open-type separation occurs upstream of the step, while dual separation bubbles appear over the step.
Nowadays, automated essay evaluation (AEE) systems play an important role in evaluating essays and have been successfully used in large-scale writing assessments. However, existing AEE systems mostly focus on grammar or shallow content measurements rather than higher-order traits such as ideas. This paper proposes a new formulation of graph-based features for concept maps using word embeddings to evaluate the quality of ideas for Chinese compositions. The concept map derived from the student’s composition is composed of the concepts appearing in the essay and the co-occurrence relationship between the concepts. By utilizing real compositions written by eighth-grade students from a large-scale assessment, the scoring accuracy of the computer evaluation system (named AECC-I: Automated Evaluation for Chinese Compositions—Ideas) is higher than the baselines. The results indicate that the proposed method deepens the construct-relevant coverage of automatic ideas evaluation in compositions and that it can provide constructive feedback for students.
We present an overview of the SkyMapper optical follow-up programme for gravitational-wave event triggers from the LIGO/Virgo observatories, which aims at identifying early GW170817-like kilonovae out to
distance. We describe our robotic facility for rapid transient follow-up, which can target most of the sky at
to a depth of
. We have implemented a new software pipeline to receive LIGO/Virgo alerts, schedule observations and examine the incoming real-time data stream for transient candidates. We adopt a real-bogus classifier using ensemble-based machine learning techniques, attaining high completeness (
) and purity (
) over our whole magnitude range. Applying further filtering to remove common image artefacts and known sources of transients, such as asteroids and variable stars, reduces the number of candidates by a factor of more than 10. We demonstrate the system performance with data obtained for GW190425, a binary neutron star merger detected during the LIGO/Virgo O3 observing campaign. In time for the LIGO/Virgo O4 run, we will have deeper reference images allowing transient detection to
Population reductions in Na intake could prevent hypertension, and current guidelines recommend that clinicians advise patients to reduce intake. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of taking action and receiving advice from a health professional to reduce Na intake in ten US jurisdictions, including the first-ever data in New York state and Guam.
Weighted prevalence and 95 % CI overall and by location, demographic group, health status and receipt of provider advice using self-reported data from the 2017 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System optional Na module.
Seven states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico and Guam.
Adults aged ≥ 18 years.
Overall, 53·6 % (95 % CI 52·7, 54·5) of adults reported taking action to reduce Na intake, including 54·8 % (95 % CI 52·8, 56·7) in New York and 61·2 % (95 % CI 57·6, 64·7) in Guam. Prevalence varied by demographic and health characteristic and was higher among adults who reported having hypertension (72·5 %; 95 % CI 71·2, 73·7) v. those who did not report having hypertension (43·9 %; 95 % CI 42·7, 45·0). Among those who reported receiving Na reduction advice from a health professional, 82·6 % (95 % CI 81·3, 83·9) reported action v. 44·4 % (95 % CI 43·4, 45·5) among those who did not receive advice. However, only 24·0 % (95 % CI 23·3, 24·7) of adults reported receiving advice from a health professional to reduce Na intake.
The majority of adults report taking action to reduce Na intake. Results highlight an opportunity to increase Na reduction advice from health professionals during clinical visits to better align with existing guidelines.
There is limited data on the dietary patterns of 5-year-old children in Asia. The study examined childhood dietary patterns and their maternal and child correlates in a multi-ethnic Asian cohort. Based on caregiver-reported 1-month quantitative FFQ of 777 children from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes cohort, cluster analysis identified two mutually exclusive clusters. Children in the ‘Unhealthy’ cluster (43·9 %) consumed more fries, processed meat, biscuits and ice cream, and less fish, fruits and vegetables compared with those in the ‘Healthy’ cluster (56·1 %). Children with mothers of lower educational attainment had twice the odds of being assigned to the ‘Unhealthy’ cluster (adjusted OR (95 % CI) = 2·19 (95 % CI 1·49–3·24)). Children of Malay and Indian ethnicities had higher odds of being assigned to the ‘Unhealthy’ cluster (adjusted OR = 25·46 (95 % CI 15·40, 42·10) and 4·03 (95 % CI 2·68–6·06), respectively), relative to Chinese ethnicity. In conclusion, this study identified two dietary patterns in children, labelled as the ‘Unhealthy’ and ‘Healthy’ clusters. Mothers’ educational attainment and ethnicity were two correlates that were associated with the children’s assignments to the clusters. These findings can assist in informing health promotion programmes targeted at Asian children.
Many scholars in China have applauded the legal system and practices such as the Ma Xiwu method of dealing with rural marriage cases in the Shaanxi Border Region as a main pillar of the PRC legal construction. This chapter challenges this view with an argument that those scholars have ignored the enormous number of arbitrary transgressions of the law, such as torture and imprisonment. Nor do those scholars pay much attention to the CCP's “voluntary” acceptance of Republican laws during the anti-Japanese war. In stark contrast to CCP's previous and ensuing anti-GMD propaganda and policies, the period of the Border Area could be better called an aberration from the Communist judicial tradition rather than a cornerstone.
Keywords: Shanganning Border Area High Court, Li Mu’an, Lei Jingtian, human sentiment, rectification campaign
The year of 1936 was a turning point for the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). On the one hand, the main force of the Red Army had completed its heroic long march in early 1936 and joined a local Communist force in the region of northern Shaanxi; on the other hand, Zhang Xueliang, the “Young Marshall” who was prodded by Chiang Kai-shek to fight the Red Army, decided to kidnap Chiang on December 12 and to force him to turn his guns against the Japanese rather than the Red Army. These dramatic developments offered CCP leader Mao Zedong a prime opportunity to consolidate the fragile Communist control in the Shanganning Border Area (hereinafter the Border Area). Together they transformed the Party from being a “marginal force on the periphery of Chinese society” into being the “major contender for national power” after the war. According to Zhang Guotao, one of CCP's founders and a contender with Mao for power inside the Party, a negotiation with Chiang Kai-shek was critical to the survival of the CCP. Mao therefore “concealed” his animosity toward Chiang and “pretended” to make resistance to the Japanese a primary goal of the CCP. The CCP publicly announced that it was willing to make significant compromises such as declaring the Border Area a regional government under the Nationalist Party (the Guomindang, or GMD) and recognizing Chiang Kai-shek as China's sole leader.
Soon after Japan launched a sweeping attack on China in July 1937, the CCP proclaimed that resisting Japan should be the top priority of the nation and the Red Army would fight under the GMD.