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Depression can impair the immunogenicity of vaccine administration in adults. Whereas many vaccinations are administered in childhood, it is not known whether adolescent or adult onset depression is associated with impairments in the maintenance of protection of childhood vaccines. This study tested the hypothesis that individuals with adolescent or adult onset mood disorders would display compromised immunity to measles, a target of childhood vaccination.
IgG antibodies to measles were quantified using a solid phase immunoassay in volunteers with bipolar disorder (BD, n = 64, mean age of onset = 16.6 ± 5.6), currently depressed individuals with major depressive disorder (cMDD, n = 85, mean age of onset = 17.9 ± 7.0), remitted individuals with a history of MDD (rMDD, n = 82, mean age of onset = 19.2 ± 8.6), and non-depressed comparison controls (HC, n = 202), all born after the introduction of the measles vaccine in the USA in 1963.
Relative to HC, both the cMDD group (p = 0.021, adjusted odds ratios (OR) = 0.47, confidence interval (CI) = 0.24–0.90), and the rMDD group (p = 0.038, adjusted OR = 0.50, CI = 0.26–0.97) were less likely to test seropositive for measles. Compared with unmedicated MDD participants, currently medicated MDD participants had a longer lifetime duration of illness and were less likely to test seropositive for measles.
Individuals with adolescent or adult onset MDD are less likely to test seropositive for measles. Because lower IgG titers are associated with increased risk of measles infection, MDD may increase the risk and severity of infection possibly because of impaired maintenance of vaccine-related protection from measles.
Introduction: The use of applications (apps) on smartphones and tablet devices is a fast growing component of health behaviour change efforts, including smoking cessation. While the content and utility of iPhone apps for smoking cessation have been systematically reviewed, Android apps have not been examined.
Aims: This study reviewed and evaluated free Android apps for smoking cessation available for download from Google Play and Amazon's USA homepage in January 2013.
Methods: Apps were reviewed; those targeting smoking cessation were identified and examined to ensure that they targeted tobacco smoking and were focused on quitting. Remaining apps were independently rated by three reviewers for 24 clinical strategies for smoking cessation. Results: Overall, 284 free apps were identified using the search terms ‘quit smoking’, ‘smoking cessation’, and ‘stop smoking’; 113 apps that targeted smoking cessation were downloaded for further review. Of these, 21 targeted tobacco smoking and were focused on quitting. These apps had moderate to low ratings for the 24 strategies, indicating that they lacked several of the most helpful strategies for quitting smoking. The apps were strongest in helping users track the number of cigarettes smoked. None connected users to on-line sources of support, referred users to smoking cessation counselling, or recommended the use of nicotine replacement therapies.
Conclusions: While Android apps for smoking cessation have some strengths, they would benefit from incorporating a broader range of strategies for helping people quit smoking.
Background: This study examined the use of low doses of antipsychotic medications (300 mg/day CPZeq or less) in older Asian patients with schizophrenia and its demographic and clinical correlates.
Methods: Information on hospitalized patients with schizophrenia, aged 55 years or older, was extracted from the database of the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns (REAP) study (2001–2009). Data on 1,452 patients in eight Asian countries and territories including China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, India, and Malaysia were analyzed. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and antipsychotic prescriptions were recorded using a standardized protocol and data collection procedure.
Results: The prescription frequency for low doses of antipsychotic medications was 40.9% in the pooled sample. Multiple logistic regression analysis of the whole sample showed that patients on low doses of antipsychotic medications were more likely to be female, have an older age, a shorter length of illness, and less positive symptoms. Of patients in the six countries and territories that participated in all the surveys between 2001 and 2009, those in Japan were less likely to receive low doses of antipsychotics.
Conclusion: Low doses of antipsychotic medications were only applied in less than half of older Asian patients with schizophrenia.
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