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During the 1980s and 1990s, U.S. policymakers adopted draconian criminal justice polices including widespread use of extremely long sentences, including life without parole. The country is now coming to face the consequences of these policies: a new class of geriatric prisoners posing little threat to public safety as they age into their seventies and beyond. Using a perspective drawn from bounded rationality, framing, and agenda-setting, we recount how policymakers adopted these policies, with key blind spots relating to obvious consequences of these harsh laws. We show how political leaders can over-respond to a perceived public policy crisis, particularly when powerful frames of race, fear, and dehumanization come to dominate the public discourse. We show how these trends are radically changing the demographics and needs of prison populations through a chronological review, mathematical simulation of the prison population, review of statistics about prison population, and personal stories illustrating these themes drawn from inside prison.
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) frequently co-occur, and large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified significant genetic correlations between these disorders.
We used the largest published GWAS for AUD (total cases = 77 822) and SCZ (total cases = 46 827) to identify genetic variants that influence both disorders (with either the same or opposite direction of effect) and those that are disorder specific.
We identified 55 independent genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphisms with the same direction of effect on AUD and SCZ, 8 with robust effects in opposite directions, and 98 with disorder-specific effects. We also found evidence for 12 genes whose pleiotropic associations with AUD and SCZ are consistent with mediation via gene expression in the prefrontal cortex. The genetic covariance between AUD and SCZ was concentrated in genomic regions functional in brain tissues (p = 0.001).
Our findings provide further evidence that SCZ shares meaningful genetic overlap with AUD.
This article examines the case of a Bosnian brother and sister at the center of a diplomatic dispute between Austria and the Ottoman Empire in 1852. Mara Illić had to cross the border into Austria in order to board a ship that would take her to Anatolia with the household of a paşa who had been banished. Milan called upon Austrian authorities to “liberate” Mara, whom he claimed had been enslaved when she was “forced” to convert to Islam as a young child. Austria's defense of its seizure of the girl and the Ottomans' insistence that she be returned reflect tension over sovereignty, jurisdiction, and personhood. The border brings into stark relief the conflict between different ways of conceptualizing categories like freedom and slavery, contract and coercion, confession and nationality.
To evaluate the health status and quality of life of young patients who had cone reconstruction for Ebstein anomaly.
We reviewed all patients who had cone reconstruction from 2007 to 2016 at our institution. Prospective surveys were mailed to all eligible patients. Quality of life was assessed using the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales, including four domains: physical, emotional, social, and school functioning.
Of 116 eligible patients, 72 (62%) responded. About 96% reported their health as excellent or good, and 52% were symptom-free. Only 37% of patients were taking any medications, the most common of which was aspirin (30%). Only 19% had been hospitalised for cardiac reasons following cone reconstruction. The average self-reported quality of life was 85.3/100, whereas the average parent proxy-reported quality of life was 81.8/100. There was no difference by self or parent proxy-report in quality of life between cone reconstruction patients and healthy children; however, quality of life was significantly better compared with children with other chronic health conditions. By self-report and parent proxy-report, 15.1 and 16.7% of patients were deemed “at risk” for reduced quality of life, respectively. Socially, 63/64 (98%) patients over 5 years old were either full-time students or working full-time.
Children with Ebstein anomaly following cone reconstruction have excellent quality of life comparable with healthy peers and significantly better than other children with chronic health conditions. Families of children with Ebstein anomaly can expect excellent quality of life, long-term health status, and social functioning following cone reconstruction.
Benefits of reduced tillage and diverse crop rotations include reversing soil C loss, and improving soil quality and function. However, adoption of these strategies is lagging, particularly in the Upper Midwest, due to a perception that reduced tillage lowers crop yields. Therefore, an 8-year comparison of these conservation systems with a conventional, tilled, 2-year rotation system was conducted to evaluate effects on yields, system productivity (measured with potential gross returns) and weed seed densities. This study compared conventional moldboard plow + chisel till (CT) to reduced strip-tillage + no-tillage (ST), each with a 2-year (2y) or 4-year (4y) crop rotation, abbreviated as CT-2y, CT-4y, ST-2y and ST-4y. The 2y rotation was corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.); the 4y rotation was corn, soybean, spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) underseeded with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and alfalfa. Only corn grain was significantly influenced by tillage strategy; CT systems yielded more than ST systems, regardless of rotation. Soybean grain yields were similar among CT-2y, CT-4y, ST-4y and lowest in the ST-2y. Yields of wheat and alfalfa were the same under both tillage strategies. Weed seed densities were higher in wheat and alfalfa, followed by corn then soybean, but were not influenced by tillage or rotation, nor universally negatively correlated to yield. Due to greater corn yields, overall system productivity was highest in CT-2y, the same between CT-4y and ST-2y, and lowest in ST-4y. Within years, productivity of CT-2y was different from only one other system at a time in 3 of 8 years and had the same productivity as all systems in another 3 of 8 years. Additionally, the similarity of productivity among three of four systems in 6 of 8 years indicated reduced tillage and diverse rotations have potential for adoption. Results support the need for research on a rotational tillage strategy, i.e., moldboard plowing before corn, to improve overall productivity if using ST before soybean, wheat and alfalfa.
Tillage is decreasing globally due to recognized benefits of fuel savings and improved soil health in the absence of disturbance. However, a perceived inability to control weeds effectively and economically hinders no-till adoption in organic production systems in the Upper Midwest, USA. A strip-tillage (ST) strategy was explored as an intermediate approach to reducing fuel use and soil disturbance, and still controlling weeds. An 8-year comparison was made between two tillage approaches, one primarily using ST the other using a combination of conventional plow, disk and chisel tillage [conventional tillage (CT)]. Additionally, two rotation schemes were explored within each tillage system: a 2-year rotation (2y) of corn (Zea mays L.), and soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) with a winter rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop; and a 4-year rotation (4y) of corn, soybean, spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) underseeded with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), and a second year of alfalfa. These treatments resulted in comparison of four main management systems CT-2y, CT-4y, ST-2y and ST-4y, which also were managed under fertilized and non-fertilized conditions. Yields, whole system productivity (evaluated with potential gross returns), and weed seed densities (first 4 years) were measured. Across years, yields of corn, soybean and wheat were greater by 34% or more under CT than ST but alfalfa yields were the same. Within tillage strategies, corn yields were the same in 2y and 4y rotations, but soybean yields, only under ST, were 29% lower in the fertilized 4y than 2 yr rotation. In the ST-4y system yields of corn and soybean were the same in fertilized and non-fertilized treatments. Over the entire rotation, system productivity was highest in the fertilized CT-2y system, but the same among fertilized ST-4y, and non-fertilized ST-2y, ST-4y, and CT-4y systems. Over the first 4 years, total weed seed density increased comparatively more under ST than CT, and was negatively correlated to corn yields in fertilized CT systems and soybean yields in the fertilized ST-2y system. These results indicated ST compromised productivity, in part due to insufficient weed control, but also due to reduced nutrient availability. ST and diverse rotations may yet be viable options given that overall productivity of fertilized ST-2y and CT-4y systems was within 70% of that in the fertilized CT-2y system. Closing the yield gap between ST and CT would benefit from future research focused on organic weed and nutrient management, particularly for corn.
Archival data from a cross-sectional survey of two cohorts of community-residing New Zealand adults (n = 157; n = 141) was analysed to examine social attitudes towards people with mental illness in a historical period associated with the establishment of a community mental health facility. Participants completed the Opinions about Mental Illness (OMI; Cohen & Struening, 1959), and the Comfort in Interaction Scale (CI, Beckwith & Mathews, 1994); the latter a measure of level of prior contact with people with mental illness. Across cohorts, the OMI Mental Hygiene subscale and the CI scale had significant variability. Older participants endorsed more Authoritarian, Social Restrictiveness and Interpersonal Ideology attitudes in their perception of people with mental illness than younger participants. Data supported the hypothesis that attitudes towards people with mental illness were influenced by social attitudes, and by opportunities to interact with people with mental illness in work settings.