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Two experiments focus on Thai tone perception by native speakers of tone languages (Thai, Cantonese, and Mandarin), a pitch–accent (Swedish), and a nontonal (English) language. In Experiment 1, there was better auditory-only and auditory–visual discrimination by tone and pitch–accent language speakers than by nontone language speakers. Conversely and counterintuitively, there was better visual-only discrimination by nontone language speakers than tone and pitch–accent language speakers. Nevertheless, visual augmentation of auditory tone perception in noise was evident for all five language groups. In Experiment 2, involving discrimination in three fundamental frequency equivalent auditory contexts, tone and pitch–accent language participants showed equivalent discrimination for normal Thai speech, filtered speech, and violin sounds. In contrast, nontone language listeners had significantly better discrimination for violin sounds than filtered speech and in turn speech. Together the results show that tone perception is determined by both auditory and visual information, by acoustic and linguistic contexts, and by universal and experiential factors.
This study compares parental pause and utterance duration in conversations with Swedish speaking children at age 1;6 who have either a large, typical, or small expressive vocabulary, as measured by the Swedish version of the McArthur-Bates CDI. The adjustments that parents do when they speak to children are similar across all three vocabulary groups; they use longer utterances than when speaking to adults, and respond faster to children than they do to other adults. However, overall pause duration varies with the vocabulary size of the children, and as a result durational aspects of the language environment to which the children are exposed differ between groups. Parents of children in the large vocabulary size group respond faster to child utterances than do parents of children in the typical vocabulary size group, who in turn respond faster to child utterances than do parents of children in the small vocabulary size group.
Introduction. Research on the mineral nutrition of Barbados cherry
is scarce. Leaf sampling techniques for this crop are unknown. Leaf analysis,
associated with the determination of the nutrient availability in the soil,
can provide reliable orientation for the establishment of fertilizer programs.
For a correct interpretation of the nutritional status, it is important (1) to
evaluate the seasonal variation of nutrient contents in the leaves, (2) to determine
the appropriate time for leaf sampling and analysis, and (3) to indicate the best
part of the plant for determination of the nutritional status. These subjects were
the three objectives of this study. Materials and methods. The experiment was
conducted from March 1997 to February 1998 in Visconde do Rio Branco, Minas Gerais,
Brazil. The dynamics of the elements N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn were
studied in leaves at the apical, median and basal positions of branches located
in the upper, median and lower portions of the plant canopy. Results. The minimum
variation in the foliar contents occurred at the medium third of the branches
located in the upper portion of the canopy. So, these parts are the most appropriate
for leaf sampling. Moreover, December was characterized as the appropriate time for
leaf sampling. Conclusion. The leaf sampling techniques developed will allow better
study of the mineral nutrition of M. emarginata in order to establish reliable
fertilizer programs and to improve the yields of this fruit tree.
This study examined phonological working memory and speech discrimination among children with attention-deficit–hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with and without motor problems. Forty-one children were assigned to three groups; children with ADHD (N=9), children with ADHD plus developmental coordination disorder (ADHD+, N=13), and age-matched control children (N=19). The subjects' ability to classify stimulus pairs was examined in two experiments. The first experiment required subjects to discriminate pairs of monosyllabic stimuli with contrasting consonants to test speech discrimination without using a working-memory load. In the second protocol, subjects were exposed to two- to five-syllabic non-word pairs with contrasting vowels in order to test speech discrimination with a working-memory load. The subjects classified the pairs as being either the same or different in both experiments. No significant differences were found between the subject groups in the discrimination task with monosyllables. When exposed to the two- to five-syllabic stimuli, the ADHD+ group scored significantly lower than both other groups. This was attributed to a higher sensitivity to working-memory load. Some possible explanations of this effect are discussed.
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