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This article contributes to the growing body of research on social assistance (SA) dynamics by analyzing patterns of SA receipt in China, a middle-income country with a large informal employment sector. Using national low-income household survey data and event history analysis, this study explored the mechanisms underlying exit from Dibao (formally known as Minimum Living Security) and changes in exit probability over time. We found that in the context of an informal economy, the ‘explicit’ change of individual characteristics and employment structure decisively affects receipt duration on the micro and macroeconomic levels, respectively. On the policy level, affected by the informal employment structure, employment services tend to be of low quality and fail to promote Dibao exit effectively. Although the specific Dibao payment strategy, which is used to address the difficulty in means tests, largely curbs the risks of declining working motivation, it considerably increases the possibility of prolonged Dibao use. With this systemic influence of informal employment, a unique pattern of SA receipt characterized by the combination of long-term use and a nondecreasing hazard rate has developed in China.
Andrena camellia Wu is one of the primary pollinators of Camellia oleifera A. in China. In this paper, the essential number of individuals for efficient pollination by this species was calculated via two criteria, based on various indicators including counts of pollen grains in provisions, from single visits, and from single foraging trips overall; single flower visit duration; single flight period duration; number of eggs laid by a single female over their lifetime; and the average number of flowers per plant. Based on the number of pollen grains collected per flower visit, the essential number of females necessary is 2107 in a 1-ha Camellia oleifera garden with 1800 plants, while only 1998 female individuals are essentially needed when estimated based on the mean number of pollen grains collected in a single flight period. We argue that the essential number estimated by the former method is more reasonable and accurate for practical applications.
Cesium lead iodide perovskite (CsPbI3) with excellent optical and electrical properties have attracted numerous academic attentions. Specifically, the black cubic phase CsPbI3 with a direct band gap of 1.74 eV has been most appropriate materials for various optoelectronic applications, especially for photovoltaic (PV), Light-Emitting Diodes (LED) and photodetector applications1. However, the preferred cubic phase of bulk CsPbI3 (α-CsPbI3) is usually only stable at high temperatures and it will undergo an immediate phase transformation to orthorhombic phase (δ-CsPbI3) after fabrication at room temperature. In this work, we have discovered a convenient CVD method to investigate the growth behavior of the cubic α-CsPbI3 film on the porous alumina substrate. The lead iodide and cesium iodide were used as the precursors for the deposition of CsPbI3. The porous alumina with high surface area and large pore volume was used as growth substrate. It was shown that the porous alumina promoted the growth of CsPbI3 film by absorbing the precursor and increasing the nucleation density. The prepared CsPbI3 film emitted strong and stable red light under ultraviolet light excitation at room temperature and ambient atmosphere. The lead iodide was absorbed on the surface of the porous alumina firstly then reacted with cesiumiodide to form the CsPbI3. The successful preparation of the CsPbI3 by the direct CVD method paves the way for its large scale growth and application in optoelectronic devices.
Due to the lack of an effective and noninvasive screening tool, the early diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) is currently difficult. For the early diagnosis of CRC, we have developed Fe3O4-Dye800-single chain fragment variable (ScFv)egfr/vegfr nanoprobes. ScFvegfr/vegfr (ScFv2) conjugated onto Fe3O4 nanoprobes efficiently recognized CRC tumors in vitro and in vivo. Near-infrared fluorescence imaging modalities such as Dye800 were utilized simultaneously with magnetic resonance to enhance detection efficiency. Fe3O4-Dye800-ScFv2 successfully detected tiny CRC tumors; the synergistic ScFv2 successfully enhanced CRC targeting. Thus, Fe3O4-Dye800-ScFv2 nanoprobes may represent a new molecular imaging strategy for the early detection of CRC.
Structural hierarchy is ubiquitous in nature and quite important for optimizing the properties of functional materials. Carbon nanomaterials, owing to their unique and tunable physical and chemical properties, have been regarded as promising candidates for various energy storage systems. Constructing hierarchically structured carbon nanomaterials (HSCNs) can boost electrochemical performance of nanocarbons. Therefore, HSCNs have attracted tremendous research attentions in recent years. In this review, we summarized the recent progress in hierarchical structure design of carbon nanomaterials and their potential applications in different energy storage technologies. First we give a brief introduction about carbon nanomaterials and the hierarchical structure merits. Subsequently, recent research works on hierarchical structure design of carbon nanomaterials was summarized and classified according to applications in lithium-ion batteries, sodium-ion batteries, supercapacitors and lithium–sulfur batteries, respectively. In addition, the challenges of HSCNs in different applications were also concluded and reviewed. At last, design principles of HSCNs were summarized and future development trends were prospected.
The increasing worldwide interest in MnO2 for supercapacitor applications is based on anticipation that MnO2-based high-voltage aqueous supercapacitors will ultimately serve as a safe and low-cost alternative to state-of-the-art commercial organic-based electrochemical double-layer capacitors or RuO2-based acid systems. In this paper, the physicochemical features, synthesis methods, and charge storage mechanism of MnO2 as well as the current status of MnO2-based supercapacitors are summarized and discussed in detail. The future opportunities and challenges related to MnO2-based supercapacitors have also been proposed.
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