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According to the trans-diagnostic perspective, disturbances in eating patterns of eating disorders (EDs) are considered as epiphenomena secondary to the patient's overvaluation of his/her body shape and weight.
The phenomenological theory states that the main feature of ED psychopathology is a disturbance in the way affected persons experience their own body (embodiment). Insecure attachment may promote the development of unstable self-identity leading to use body weight as a source of self-definition.
The aim of our study was to assess the role of embodiment impairments in the relationships between attachment stiles and ED psychopathology.
One hundred twelve ED patients and 108 healthy subjects filled in the Identity and Eating Disorders (IDEA) questionnaire, which assesses embodiment and personal identity abnormalities, the eating disorder inventory-2 (EDI-2) and the experiences in close relationships (ECR) scale, which defines attachment styles.
ED patients showed IDEA, EDI-2 and ECR scores significantly higher than controls. Significant correlations between IDEA scores, insecure attachment and almost all EDI-2 sub-item scores emerged in ED patients but not in controls. IDEA total score mediated the relationship between avoidant attachment and EDI-2 interoceptive awareness.
These findings demonstrate that in ED patients insecure attachment is correlated to disorder of identity and lived corporeality that, in turn, mediates the association between attachment and a specific ED psychopathological trait. Therefore, we suppose that early relationships, through the development of disturbances in identity and embodiment, lead to altered perception of bodily signals and deranged discrimination of one's emotions, which could contribute to EDs.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The development activity of a new experimental technique for the study of the fast electron transport in high density matter is reported. This new diagnostic tool enables the X-ray 2D imaging of ultrahigh intensity laser plasmas with simultaneous spectral resolution in a very large energy range to be obtained. Results from recent experiments are discussed, in which the electron propagation in multilayer targets was studied by using the Kα. In particular, results highlighting the role of anisotropic Bremsstrahlung are reported, for the sake of the explanation of the capabilities of the new diagnostics. A discussion of a test experiment conceived to extend the technique to a single-shot operation is finally given.
Laser plasma interaction experiments have been performed using an fs Titanium Sapphire laser. Plasmas have been generated from planar PMMA targets using single laser pulses with 3.3 mJ pulse energy, 50 fs pulse duration at 800 nm wavelength. The electron density distributions of the plasmas in different delay times have been characterized by means of Nomarski Interferometry. Experimental data were compared with hydrodynamic simulation. First results to characterize the plasma density and temperature as a function of space and time are obtained. This work aims to generate plasmas in the warm dense matter (WDM) regime at near solid-density in an ultra-fast laser target interaction process. Plasmas under these conditions can serve as targets to develop X-ray Thomson scattering as a plasma diagnostic tool, e.g., using the Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) free-electron laser (FLASH) at Dentsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) Hamburg.
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