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The mechanixcal behavior of W/Cu multilayers with periods ranging from 24 down to 3 nm prepared by ion beam sputtering was analyzed using a method combining X-ray diffraction and tensile testing, and instrumented indentation. Cracks perpendicular to the tensile axis observed by optical microscopy were generated in the films under the largest applied tensile stresses. These cracks may appear in the multilayer while W layers are still in a compressive stress state. Elastic modulus and hardness values were extracted from nano-indentation data. Crack initiation and elastic constants were observed to depend on the period of these multilayers.
The SuperDARN (Super Dual Auroral Radar Network) experiment is a multi-national effort to develop chains of coherent HF radars world wide in order to obtain instantaneous large scale coverage of the magnetospheric plasma convection at high spatial and temporal resolution. We will review the scientific context of the experiment. The role of SuperDARN in our understanding of Sun-Earth relations will be emphasized through its numerous scientific objectives. The principle of the experiment will be described and specific capabilities and achievements presented, as well as its implication in the Space Weather program. Finally, the implementation of SuperDARN radars at Dome C is presented together with the prospective global extension of the network in both hemispheres.
New glassy matrices, able to incorporate new highly concentrated radioactive liquid wastes (HLW), are being studied. Investigations were performed on rare earth-rich glasses, known as very durable matrices. The selected basic glass composition was (wt. %): 51.0 SiO2 – 8.5 B2O3–12.2 Na2O – 4.3 Al2O3 – 4.8 CaO – 3.2 ZrO2 – 16.0 Nd2O3. To determine both the environment around the rare earth in this glass and its evolution according to its concentration (1.3 – 30 wt. % Nd2O3), EXAFS (Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure) spectroscopy at the LIII-edge of neodymium and optical absorption spectroscopy were used. By coupling these two characterisation methods, several hypotheses are proposed about the nature of the rare earth neighbouring in the glass.
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