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A comprehensive guide on Atomic-Scale Analytical Tomography (ASAT) that discusses basic concepts and implications of the technique in areas such as material sciences, microscopy, engineering sciences and several interdisciplinary avenues. The title interrogates how to successfully achieve ASAT at the intersection of transmission electron microscopy and atom probe microscopy. This novel concept is capable of identifying individual atoms in large volumes as well as in 3D, with high spatial resolution. Written by leading experts from academia and industry, this book serves as a guide with real-world applications on cutting-edge research problems. An essential reading for researchers, engineers and practitioners interested in nanoscale characterisation, this book introduces the reader to a new direction for atomic-scale microscopy.
A 4-hour-old infant with profound cyanosis on an alprostadil infusion was urgently transferred to Rady Children’s Hospital with suspected CHD. Upon arrival, urgent echocardiography was performed but could not confirm the presence of discrete pulmonary veins or pulmonary venous drainage. Given the difficulty in delineating the anatomy, a cardiac CT scan was performed and demonstrated a nearly atretic common pulmonary vein with multiple small collaterals that drained to systemic veins. Due to the high risk of mortality associated with operative repair, the decision was made to proceed with compassionate withdrawal of care. The described anatomy of common pulmonary vein atresia remains rare, and to our knowledge, fewer than 40 cases have been reported in the literature. Albeit rare, common pulmonary vein atresia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a severely cyanotic neonate.
Throughout the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, health and social care workers have faced unprecedented professional demands, all of which are likely to have placed considerable strain on their psychological well-being.
To measure the national prevalence of mental health symptoms within healthcare staff, and identify individual and organisational predictors of well-being.
The COVID-19 Staff Wellbeing Survey is a longitudinal online survey of psychological well-being among health and social care staff in Northern Ireland. The survey included four time points separated by 3-month intervals; time 1 (November 2020; n = 3834) and time 2 (February 2021; n = 2898) results are presented here. At time 2, 84% of respondents had received at least one dose of a COVID-19 vaccine. The survey included four validated psychological well-being questionnaires (depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress and insomnia), as well as demographic and organisational measures.
At time 1 and 2, a high proportion of staff reported moderate-to-severe symptoms of depression (30–36%), anxiety (26–27%), post-traumatic stress (30–32%) and insomnia (27–28%); overall, significance tests and effect size data suggested psychological well-being was generally stable between November 2020 and February 2021 for health and social care staff. Multiple linear regression models indicated that perceptions of less effective communication within their organisation predicted greater levels of anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress and insomnia.
This study highlights the need to offer psychological support to all health and social care staff, and to communicate with staff regularly, frequently and clearly regarding COVID-19 to help protect staff psychological well-being.
Early life trauma (ELT) refers to various types of adversity that occur during the early years (usually defined as the first 5 years) of a person’s life. It is a key determinant of mental health and well-being throughout the life course. A series of three workshops on early life trauma and mental health care were conducted in Belarus and Ukraine in 2018-2019 to support stakeholders and service providers to better understand and respond to ELT, and to support the development of a network of ELT specialists dedicated to finding common goals, pooling cross-disciplinary data and sharing experiences and good practice across countries. The workshops found that different attitudes, expectations and experiences amongst stakeholders and service providers could hinder the development of consistent, effective and empowering care in Belarus and Ukraine. However, opportunities for more protective and health-enhancing responses were also identified, including the need for: evidence-based education and training; clear roles and communication pathways across sectors; and inter-sectoral partnerships and networks to leverage resources, mitigate practitioner burnout, and build a continuum of support within communities. Findings have been disseminated through a directory of resources in Belarus, a project webpage (www.earlylifetrauma.info) and a report on ELT in Belarus and Ukraine published by WHO Europe.
Belarus is undergoing legislative shifts towards community-based mental health care. Responding effectively to support this process requires an understanding of the experiences and challenges facing families caring for a relative affected by mental illness.
To identify how caring for a person with severe mental illness impacts on family carers, and what carers identify as their support needs.
Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 17 caregivers of people affected by severe mental illness (diagnosis of F06.8, F20, F25, F7, and/or F 84) in Belarus between March - June 2019.
Care-giving for a family member was usually undertaken on a full time basis with no option for respite. Whilst caring did, in cases, strengthen family solidarity, it also resulted in intensive stress and burnout, financial pressures, and high levels of family tension, exacerbated when the person living with mental illness was perceived as a potential safety risk. High levels of societal stigma meant that care-givers commonly felt unable to discuss their circumstances, travel in public spaces, or participate in community activities. Stigma also deterred carers from seeking professional support. Priorities for support amongst carers included better information, public awareness raising and sensitization, advocacy to support patient integration into social and economic life, peer support and respite for family carers, and an increase in mental health specialists.
Caregiving affected family carers on multiple levels with predominantly negative consequences. Priorities identified by carers need to be considered and acted upon if community-based care is to become an effective option.
The Quaternary Isotope Laboratory (QIL) at the University of Washington was launched in 1969 and directed by Minze Stuiver until his retirement in 1998. Here we review some of the scientific work undertaken in the QIL and the memories of some of Minze’s former students and colleagues.
This article explores the work of choreographer Dianne McIntyre as an improvisational artist entangled in questions of intermedial relations among sounds and motions. It discusses the terms of performance in relation to emergent paradigms of Afro-pessimism, and argues for a black regard as a method of engaging with experimental performances by artists of African descent. The article explores theoretical terms of witness and encounter with black performance in relation to queer alterities, and non-normative modes of physical expression. The article suggests further need for research into the work of an outstanding black American female artist of theatre and dance.
YouTube is increasingly used as a source of healthcare information. This study evaluated the quality of videos on YouTube about cochlear implants.
YouTube was searched using the phrase ‘cochlear implant’. The first 60 results were screened by two independent reviewers. A modified Discern tool was used to evaluate the quality of each video.
Forty-seven videos were analysed. The mean overall Discern score was 2.0 out of 5.0. Videos scored higher for describing positive elements such as the benefits of a cochlear implant (mean score of 3.4) and scored lower for negative elements such as the risks of cochlear implant surgery (mean score of 1.3).
The quality of information regarding cochlear implant surgery on YouTube is highly variable. These results demonstrated a bias towards the positive attributes of cochlear implants, with little mention of the risks or uncertainty involved. Although videos may be useful as supplementary information, critical elements required to make an informed decision are lacking. This is of particular importance when patients are considering surgery.
High-throughput grain mapping with sub-nanometer spatial resolution is demonstrated using scanning nanobeam electron diffraction (also known as 4D scanning transmission electron microscopy, or 4D-STEM) combined with high-speed direct-electron detection. An electron probe size down to 0.5 nm in diameter is used and the sample investigated is a gold–palladium nanoparticle catalyst. Computational analysis of the 4D-STEM data sets is performed using a disk registration algorithm to identify the diffraction peaks followed by feature learning to map the individual grains. Two unsupervised feature learning techniques are compared: principal component analysis (PCA) and non-negative matrix factorization (NNMF). The characteristics of the PCA versus NNMF output are compared and the potential of the 4D-STEM approach for statistical analysis of grain orientations at high spatial resolution is discussed.
The Catholic Church has been the largest single religious denomination in the United States since the mid-nineteenth century, consistently claiming between 20 and 25 percent of the nation’s population over the past 170 years. Arriving in the Americas with the earliest Spanish and French missionaries, following pathways of settlement and expansion to all corners of the United States, and bolstered by successive waves of immigration, both in the past and today, Catholicism has been a constitutive element of American history from the very beginning. It has shaped the development of the nation in myriad ways, from formal political engagement and social activism to subtle cultural influence and anonymous works of charity. It is also one of the nation’s most internally diverse religious denominations, drawing together members from all races and ethnicities, socioeconomic classes, ideological perspectives, and political persuasions. American Catholics espouse a wide range of beliefs, customs, and practices that reflects the church’s cultural richness, but that has also given rise to numerous clashes and outright conflict. They continue to maintain a strong sense of collective unity, yet also exhibit much of the same polarization found within wider society. It is a church that today is at once growing and contracting, vibrant yet visibly scarred by scandal. For all these reasons, American Catholicism captivates and confounds, and it deserves scholarly attention.