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Semiconducting and insulating polymers and copolymers/Au nanograins based hybrid multilayers (HyMLs) were fabricated on p-Si single-crystal substrate by an iterative method that involves, respectively, Langmuir-Blodgett and spin-coating techniques (for the deposition of organic film) and sputtering technique (for the deposition of metal nanograins) to prepare Au/HyMLs/p-Si Schottky device. The electrical properties of the Au/HyMLs/p-Si Schottky device were investigated by current-voltage (I–V) measurements in the thickness range of 1-5 bilayers (BL).
At different number of layers, current-voltage (I–V) measurements were performed. Results showed a rectifying behavior. Junction parameters, such as barrier height (BH), from the I–V measurements for example for the PMMA-b-PS based Au/HyMLs/p-Si structure were obtained as 0.72±0.02 eV at 1BL and 0.64±0.02eV at 5BL. It was observed that the BH value of 0.61 eV obtained for the 5 BL PS based Au/HyMLs/p-Si structure was lower than the value of 0.68 eV of conventional Au/p-Si Schottky diodes. Thus, modification of the interfacial potential barrier for Au/p-Si diodes has been achieved using a thin MLs of different polymers based HyMls semiconductor.
Agents that increase natural protective mechanisms have been proposed for prevention and treatment of intramammary infections. The objective of this study was to describe the effects of a single intramammary infusion of a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-based biological response modifier (BRM) on cellular death mechanism in uninfected and Staphylococcus aureus-infected bovine mammary glands during involution. Three groups of 12 cows, each one including 6 Staph. aureus-infected and 6 uninfected, were infused in two mammary quarters with BRM or placebo and slaughtered at 7, 14 and 21 d of involution. In infected quarters, BRM treatment produced a significant increase in percent of stained epithelial cells for the apoptosis-promoting protein Bax at every observation period. In addition, BRM produced a significant increase of immunostained stromal cells for Bax compared with placebo-treated quarters. BRM treatment produced an increase in percentages of epithelial cells staining with active caspase-3 at 7 d and 14 d of involution compared with placebo-treated quarters and a significant decrease in percentages of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL)-positive epithelial cells at 7 d and 21 d of involution. In addition, BRM treatment caused an increase in percentage of stromal cells immunostaining for active caspase-3 and TUNEL. An increase of active caspase-3 and TUNEL epithelial and stromal cell immunostaining was observed in Staph. aureus-infected compared with uninfected quarters. Cellular proliferation, determined by Ki-67 immunostaining, was increased in epithelial and stromal cells from Staph. aureus-infected compared with uninfected quarters at every observation period. These results provide new insights into the mechanism of mammary cell death in uninfected and Staph. aureus-infected bovine mammary gland during involution and illustrate the effects of LPS-based BRM on apoptosis and cell proliferation during mammary involution.
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