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The preservation of Military Macaw Ara militaris in Mexico required the implementation of a nationwide assessment evaluating its vulnerability using IUCN criteria. With the combined effort of several institutions, the abundance, location, dispersion, habitat availability, and climatic conditions of areas occupied by the species were determined. Although the species’ extent of occurrence is extensive (263,919 km2) only 29% of this constitutes area of occupancy. Published estimates indicate a series of isolated populations containing from four macaws to 215. Macaws occurred in 35 populations in four regions of 16 states containing an estimated 1,563–3,263 macaws; lower than required for long-term viability. Within regions, neighbouring populations were separated by an average of 68 km. The extent of occurrence is heterogeneous, and macaws inhabit areas that differ in elevation, precipitation, temperature, and forest cover. Higher local abundances occur in landscapes where annual precipitation is ≥1,100 mm, and primary forest availability ≥1,800 km2. Although the existence of undetected macaw groups in Mexico is possible, these are likely to contain only small numbers of individuals, as most detected areas with macaws contain less than 40 individuals, and larger concentrations are more likely to be noticed due to their conspicuous behaviour. The species is threatened primarily by its low overall abundance, fragmented distribution, and forest loss around populations with the highest abundance. With the information generated, it is possible to design and implement specific management and conservation strategies at different geographic scales for the recovery and maintenance of the species in Mexico. It is necessary to strengthen collaborative programmes among conservation organizations, government agencies, and local communities in each region of the country to organize and finance community-based actions such as monitoring, habitat restoration, protection from poaching and the creation of a network of conservation corridors and macaw reserves focused on conservation.
Personality (according to Cloninger) responds to Biological aspects (temperamental) and Psychosocial (characterological), thereby forming the complex pattern of human behavior. High level of avoidance of harm and stiffness are factors associated with depressive disorders, closely linked to the Serotoninergic System. Melancholicus Typus (MT) is characterizes by its seriousness, scrupulousness of conscience, perfectionism, responsibility and order at all levels among other features.
Develop an inventory psychometrically to assess the influence of personality traits Melancholicus Typus in the appearance of resistant depression throughout life.
Retrospective observational study. We designed a questionnaire with a total of 70 items that shaped the personality of Melancholicus Typus. We explored the internal consistency using statistical factor analysis, as well as discriminate validity of these. This questionnaire was applied to the sample of 100 patients signed informed consent prior. They met criteria for inclusion/exclusion. The patient population is from the Institute of Psychiatry Rafael Coullaut. Madrid.
The existence of personality traits of Melancholicus Typus identifies a vulnerability to developing relevant resistant depression over the life of individuals. The inventory developed for this study is a useful test to assess personality traits such as Melancholicus Typus both clinical populations and general population.
The scale shows good construct validity, as well as good internal consistency through correlations Item/Total. The reliability of the scale is high.
In different areas of Therapy, included Psychiatry, herbal medicine has had an increasing interest during the last years. Plants are traditional uses, but only a few have been approved therapeutically. However, we do not know any bibliometric analysis about herbs that are used in Psychiatry.
We have conducted a bibliometric study regarding scientific publications related to phytotherapy in the Psychiatry area during 1986-2006 period. Using the platform Embase.com (Elservier, Amsterdam), including EMBASE and MEDLINE database, we selected those documents whose included the descriptors plant, herb, phytotherap, and psychiatr (with all diagnostic criteria). Plants' indications had been selected according to PDR for Herbal Medicines. As bibliometric indicator of the production, Price's Law was applied.
A total of 21.409 original documents were obtained. Our data confirm a fulfilment of the Price' Law related to scientific production about medicinal plants in Psychiatry. We had observed it after carring out a lineal adjustment (y=135,08x-466,38 r=0.92) an another adjustment exponential curve (y=132,26e0.1497x; r=0.99). The plants more mentioned in the psychiatric literature have been St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum; n=937) and Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba; n=694). The countries with more percentage of documents were the Unites States (29,44%), Germany (9,41%) and Japan (8,75%), and the country with highest Index of Participation (number of documents per country / number of documents in our repertory) was India (IPa= 0,935) and China (IPa=0,721).
Productivity medicinal plants in the Psychiatry area increased during the period 1986-2006. Nevertheless, documents about therapeutic herbs in this field are rather little.
The main problem of depression is not only the high prevalence of the disorder but also its serious consequences on the patient’s quality of life and the associated social costs in terms of health care resource utilization and productivity losses. In recent years, there has been a considerable improvement in the knowledge of depression from the pathogenic, clinical and therapeutic perspectives. The present study analyzes whether such advances are reflected in a positive evolution of the treatment of depression in Spain. To this effect we have contrasted the results of two socio-sanitary studies published in this country: the White Book editions of 1982 and 1997 (WB82 and WB97, respectively). From the methodological perspective, the physician selection criteria employed were very uniform (structured questionnaires delivered to 128 (WB82) and 300 (WB97) randomly selected psychiatrists). The origin of patients consulting for specialized care has varied over this 15-year period. In effect, WB82 patients were essentially referred by friends (87.5%) and from the primary care setting (44.5%), whereas in the WB97 study referral from primary care predominated (50.1%), followed by the patient’s personal decision (24.8%). In turn, 40.7% and 51.7% of the psychiatrists in WB97 respectively considered the diagnostic and therapeutic means available in primary care to be insufficient. The priorities for improving patient quality of life, as reflected by both editions of the study, were the training of primary care physicians and the adequate provision of means in the mental health care centers. On the other hand, fewer problems for establishing a correct diagnosis were referred in the 1997 edition of the study (28.7%) than in 1982 (48.4%). In this sense, the main problem reported in WB82 was the lack of specialized training, whereas the masking of depression by some other disease process or symptoms was the main problem in WB97 (67.6% vs 21.1% according to WB82). The main symptoms upon which the diagnosis of depression are based do not seem to have evolved much in the past 15 years. The most frequently cited manifestations were a worsening of mood, loss of interest and leisure capacity, sleep alterations and diminished vitality. A comparative analysis of the therapeutic resources used was not possible, for prior to 1982 the only drugs available to physicians were the classical tricyclic agents and some MAO inhibitors; the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) – possibly the greatest advance in the treatment of depression in these 15 years – had not yet been introduced. Nevertheless, it should be pointed out that 98% of the psychiatrists consulted in WB97 considered pharmacologic treatment to be the most widely adopted form of management once depression has been diagnosed.
Different types of behavioural impulsivity have been associated with the development of substance use disorders but little is know about what type of impulsivity is provoked by the effect of chronic use of substances.
Determine what type of behavioural impulsivity was associated with the use of alcohol and cocaine.
Design and measurements:
A prospective cohort study was conducted to identify changes on behavioural impulsivity. Non-dependent heavy drinkers (N=471) were recruited from primary care centres. The following assessments were used at baseline and at the end of the 4-year follow-up period: The continuous performance test (CPT) and stop-signal task (SST) assessed behavioural inhibition. Differential reinforcement for low-rate responding (DRLR) was used to evaluate the delay discounting dimension. Diagnoses were rendered using the Structured Interview for DSM-IV.
Amounts on alcohol and cocaine consumption during follow-up correlated positively with changes on all impulsivity measures. Logistic regression analysis indicated that cocaine used was associated specifically with poor performance on CPT and SST and amount of alcohol used during follow-up was related to changes on DRLR.
Substances provoke different pattern of behavioural impulsivity: chronic cocaine use provokes changes mainly on behavioural inhibition dimension and alcohol use induces changes on delay discounting paradigm.
In subscales TSQM, punctuations very raised for deltoid: Efficiency 75, 55 %; adverse events 94, 38 %; Administration 75, 27 %; Global satisfaction 74, 64%. The VAS of satisfaction with deltoid was of 7′ 4 ± 1′ 3 (0–10).
less pain, adverse events and more normal (100%), more capacity decision (80%), less stigmatizing (85%).
No differences in efficacy, but better tolerated.
The administration of the deltoid RLAI in can be a useful tool for the treatment of psychotic disorders because it can allow the patient to engage in certain therapeutic decisions (to be able to choose the way), promote adherence, may improve the perception of treatment to be associated deltoid administration to something less traumatic and stigmatizing, that is “more normal.”
The link between impulsivity and alcohol use disorders has been established in longitudinal and cross-sectional studies, but little is know about the role of behavioural impulsivity in the development of substance use disorders.
Determine the role of behavioural measures of impulsivity in the development of alcohol use disorders.
Design and measurements:
A prospective cohort study was conducted to identify the risk factors associated with alcohol dependence. Non-dependent heavy drinkers (N=471) and healthy controls (N=149) were recruited from primary care centres. They were assessed at the end of the 4-year follow-up period. Diagnoses were rendered using the Structured Interview for DSM-IV. The continuous performance test (CPT) and stop-signal task (SST) assessed behavioural inhibition. Differential reinforcement for low-rate responding (DRLR) was used to evaluate the delay discounting dimension.
HD participants have significant impairments on all laboratory measures of impulsivity. In the logistic regression model, impairment on DRLR (delay discounting dimension) was the only measure that classified accurately HD. Baseline behavioural measures of impulsivity correlated positively with amount of alcohol consumption during the follow-up period. Logistic regression analysis indicated that performance on inhibitory control (SST) (behavioural inhibition dimension) was a significant predictor (odds=1.52[1.08-2.31]) for developing alcohol dependence.
Our data support the link between behavioural measures of impulsivity and alcohol use disorders. Delay discounting dimension may be a risk factor for begin alcohol use heavily and behavioural inhibition impairment is more involved in the development of dependence.
The emergence of new antipsychotics, such as Paliperidone Extended Release, demands a constant effort on behalf of the clinics to outline an appropriate profile for those patients who may benefit more.
To collect clinical and social-demographic data to develop a profile of the patient who has used Paliperidone Extended Release in our hospitalisation unit.
This is a naturalistic, descriptive and retrospective study; we will include 36 patients admitted to our Acute Patients Unit. The inclusion and exclusion criteria were clinical.
A total of 44.4% were over the age of 40 years; positive symptoms (52.8%) and behavioural alterations (19.4%) prevailed; the most common diagnosis was schizophrenia (47.2%). A total of 61.1% of cases were associated with other APs, especially Injectable Risperidone Extended Release or antipsychotics with a sedation profile. A total of 83.3% did not require mechanical restraint, and 80.6% did not present side effects. The most common side effects were extrapyramidal symptoms. The mean duration of hospitalisation was 19.60 ± 12.07 days. The mean dose of Paliperidone Extended Release was 14.41 ± 4.83 mg/day. Initially, a dose of 13 ± 4.42 mg/day was used, while the maximum dose was 27 mg/day.
Our experience with Paliperidone Extended Release in the hospital scope allows us to state that it is a drug with a very positive efficacy and safety-tolerability profile. Therefore, we may consider Paliperidone Extended Release a first line antipsychotic due to its contributions in different patient elements (clinical, functionality, tolerability, etc.)
The present versions of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is being revised and their update will be published in a close future. In this sense, our purpose was to know the use of diagnostic criteria, in the Psychiatry area, since a bibliometric perspective.
The material studied was selected using databases (EMBASE & MEDLINE) during 1980-2005 period. Those documents that include the descriptors DSM*, ICD*, diagnostic criteria, Psychiat*, drug* were selected. We applied some bibliometric rules as Price´s Law of increasing in scientific literature.
A total of 11916 (DSM), 2019 (ICD), 30 (Chinese Classification of Mental Disorder), 5 (Cuban Glossary of Psychiatry and Latin American Guide for Psychiatry) documents were obtained in Medline database. Our results show nonfulfilment of Price´s Law because production on DSM or ICD does not grow exponential (yDSM=54.576e0.1255x ; rDSM=0.95; yICD=4.2643e0.1616x; rICD=0.93), after linear adjustment (yDSM= 35.381x-50.295; rDSM=0.98; y=7.7221x-34.931; rICD=0.98). Journals of American and European associations with the highest IF were selected from EMBASE database: American Journal of Psychiatry (IF=8.286; PaIDSM=12.39; PaIICD=0.58) and British Journal of Psychiatry (IF=4.956; PaIDSM=5.62; PaIICD=1.88).
During last years, the uses of diagnostic criteria (DSM or ICD) have increased in scientific literature. Nevertheless, documents that use other classifications are rather little.
Known by many different names-culture broker, community interpreter, medical interpreter, and communication facilitator-the intercultural mediator has as a primary task the facilitation of communication and the therapeutic relationship in the presence of linguistic and/or cultural difference. The Immigration Plan of “la Caixa” Social and Cultural Outreach Projects has undertaken an ambitious project to train all of the cultural mediators in Spain, including both those currently working and those newly entering the field, to meet existing needs. In the first phase of the project, the training was developed in Catalunya, in collaboration with the the Catalan Department of Health, executed by the Psychiatry Department of the Vall d'Hebron University Hospital (Autonomous University of Barcelona) and certified by the Health Studies Institute of the Department of Health. Drawing from the four years experience of the NGO SURT and the Department of Psychiatry of the Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, the program provides 200 hours of theoretical and 1200 hours of practical training. 50 currently employed intercultural mediators and 30 novices are being trained. In subsequent phases the training will be adapted to needs of other autonomous regions of Spain. Modules include medical anthropology, Western biomedicine, community health, linguistic interpretation, cultural competence, professional identity, and ethics. Small group supervision provides a supportive environment to facilitate the application of theory to practice. Finally, high quality training materials were developed specifically for the course. Preliminary evaluations of the project are positive despite some unanticipated complications.
Alcohol and cocaine are frequently used together. Little is known about which factors are related with the development of either cocaine or alcohol dependence in dually users.
To determine variables associated with the risk fro the development of either cocaine or alcohol dependence in non-dependent drinkers with recreational cocaine use during a 4 year-follow-up period.
A prospective cohort study was performed to establish the risk factors associated with alcohol and cocaine dependence. Subjects recruited (N=336), from primary care centres. At baseline were classified as heavy drinkers and cocaine users (HD+Co, N=227) and alcohol abusers with cocaine use (AA+Co, N= 109).
At 4-year follow-up assessment, AA+Co subjects had higher rates of prevalence for cocaine (55% vs. 32%, p<0.001)) and alcohol dependence (97.5% vs. 58.2%, p<0.001) than HD+Co participants. Being alcohol abuser and single were eight and three times, respectively, more likely to develop cocaine dependence. When impulse control disorders or alcohol abuse occurred the odds ratio of developing alcohol dependence was 9 and 5.7 respectively. Also, alcohol abuse at baseline was associated with shortened time between onset of abuse and dependence for cocaine use disorders and for alcohol use disorders.
Alcohol abuse in heavy drinkers with recreational cocaine use predicted alcohol and cocaine dependence at follow-up. Our findings agree with previous findings supporting the relationship between impulsivity and risk for substance use disorders.
A large list of benefits have been atributed to the long-acting-risperidone-injection (LARI) when treating the mentally ill, such us; less side effects, tolerability improvement, and better medication compliance.
Description of a sample of patients in treatment at a Valencian Psychiatric Medical Center (Buñol), with LARI; diagnosis, reasons why LARI was introduced and document the evolution of oral treatment since LARI was introduced.
Methods and materials
Observational descriptive study. 32 patients included, from a Buñol Psychiatric Medical Center, treated with LARI.
Assessments included sociodemographic data (sex. age, diagnosis, years illness, LARI dose, number of pills per day taken when LARI was introduced and at present time). SPSS (v15.0).
Reasons why LARI was introduced; 47% non compliance, 37% side effects with oral or other LAI treatment (long acting injection).
LARI treatment duration; 5 years (rank 1–14) and the LARI mean dose; 68 mg/14 days (rank 25–150 mg).
Mean number of pills/day when LARI was introduced; 5,5 pills/d (rank 1–13), and at present time; 4 pills/day (rank 0–11).
Oral antipsychotic treatment was retired in; 37,5%.
Non compilance is the main handicap physicians have to deal with; the CATIE study revealed that 74% abandoned treatment. Though it is difficult to reach monotherapy, a long acting injection antipsychotic (such us LARI), can help to simplify oral treatment, and therefore improve adherence, essential for an adequate clinical outcome.
Although investigation have demonstrated that stimulants are effective medication for the treatment of the symptoms on the ADHD, a commonly described but quite slightly studied side effect of this type of medication, is the effect on the emotional expression of patients.
evaluate the effect of the treatment with Methylphenidate on the affective/emotional expression in children diagnosed with ADHD.
It's a descriptive study of several cases series, from a center and about a unique group, where 'n” will be 15 children diagnosed with ADHD at the University Hospital, who were required beginning treatment with methylphenidate, with a daily dose of at least 0,3mg/Kg. In this study it will be evaluated the emotional expression of the group, according to the scale Expression and Emotion Scale for Children (EESC) making a comparison between the previous moment to the treatment and a subsequent month from its beginning.
The evaluation of the total result of the EESC conducted by the parent didn't show statistically significant differences between scores previously of the treatment and results after a month with it. The dominions (positive emotions, emotional flatness and emotional lability) didn't show differences between both periods of time, nevertheless, the positive emotions showed a tendency of reduction more showy than the rest, without getting to be statistically significant (p=0.0638).
Statistically there haven't been significant changes in the emotional expression of the children caused by the treatment with methylphenidate. Nevertheless, the data show that there is a tendency to an improvement in it.
It is hypothesized that in the etiology of schizophrenia genetic and environmental factors are involved. Between the environmental events linked to the causation of this condition an inmune dysfunction has been described. First degree biological relatives of people with schizophrenia also have an incrased incidence of autoimmune diseases.
The aim of this work was to examine the serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, sIL-2R IL-6, IL-12p70, TNF-α and IFN-γ) as well as of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) in male patients with schizophrenia and in their first degree-biological relatives.
Blood samples were obtained from patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia in a stable psychophatological condition (n = 36), first degree biological relatives of those patients and a healthy control group (n = 26). Serum interleukins were analyzed using a commercial ELISA preparation (Bender MedSystems). We used non-parametric test for statistical analysis.
Patients with schizophrenia showed significantly higher serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines (sIL-2R, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL12-p70) and lower serum levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4 than in the healthy control group. The unaffected first-degree relatives showed changes in proinflammatory cytokines (sIL-2R, IL-6 and TNF-α,) in the same way as the corresponding schizophrenia patients, but at a lower level than the healthy control group.
Ours findings suggest that sIL-2R, IL-6 and TNF-a may be biologic vulnerability markers for psychiatric disorders and also these alterations might have an hereditably pattern.
Recently there has been a considerable rise in the frequency of metabolic diseases, such as obesity, due to changes in lifestyle and resultant imbalances between energy intake and expenditure. Whey proteins are considered as potentially important components of a dietary solution to the obesity problem. However, the roles of individual whey proteins in energy balance remain poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of a high-fat diet (HFD) containing α-lactalbumin (LAB), a specific whey protein, or the non-whey protein casein (CAS), on energy balance, nutrient transporters expression and enteric microbial populations. C57BL/6J mice (n 8) were given an HFD containing either 20 % CAS or LAB as protein sources or a low-fat diet containing CAS for 10 weeks. HFD-LAB-fed mice showed a significant increase in cumulative energy intake (P=0·043), without differences in body weight, energy expenditure, locomotor activity, RER or subcutaneous and epididymal white adipose tissue weight. HFD-LAB intake led to a decrease in the expression of glut2 in the ileum (P=0·05) and in the fatty acid transporter cd36 (P<0·001) in both ileum and jejunum. This suggests a reduction in absorption efficiency within the small intestine in the HFD-LAB group. DNA from faecal samples was used for 16S rRNA-based assessment of intestinal microbiota populations; the genera Lactobacillus, Parabacteroides and Bifidobacterium were present in significantly higher proportions in the HFD-LAB group. These data indicate a possible functional relationship between gut microbiota, intestinal nutrient transporters and energy balance, with no impact on weight gain.
Slaughter is a crucial step in the meat production chain that could induce psychological stress on each animal, resulting in a physiological response that can differ among individuals. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between an animal’s emotional state, the subsequent psychological stress at slaughter and the cellular damage as an effect. In all, 36 entire male pigs were reared at an experimental farm and a cognitive bias test was used to classify them into positive bias (PB) or negative bias (NB) groups depending on their decision-making capabilities. Half of the animals, slaughtered in the same batch, were used for a complete study of biomarkers of stress, including brain neurotransmitters and some muscle biomarkers of oxidative stress. After slaughter, specific brain areas were excised and the levels of catecholamines (noradrenaline (NA) and dopamine (DA)) and indoleamines (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and serotonin (5HT)) were analyzed. In addition, muscle proteasome activity (20S), antioxidant defence (total antioxidant activity (TAA)), oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation (LPO)) and autophagy biomarkers (Beclin-1, microtubule-associated protein I light chain 3 (LC3-I) and LC3-II) were monitored during early postmortem maturation (0 to 24 h). Compared with PB animals, NB pigs were more susceptible to stress, showing higher 5HT levels (P<0.01) in the hippocampus and lower DA (P<0.001) in the pre-frontal cortex. Furthermore, NB pigs had more intense proteolytic processes and triggered primary muscle cell survival mechanisms immediately after slaughter (0 h postmortem), thus showing higher TAA (P<0.001) and earlier proteasome activity (P<0.001) and autophagy (Beclin-1, P<0.05; LC3-II/LC3-I, P<0.001) than PB pigs, in order to counteract the induced increase in oxidative stress, that was significantly higher in the muscle of NB pigs at 0 h postmortem (LPO, P<0.001). Our study is the first to demonstrate that pig’s cognitive bias influences the animal’s susceptibility to stress and has important effects on the postmortem muscle metabolism, particularly on the cell antioxidant defences and the autophagy onset. These results expand the current knowledge regarding biomarkers of animal welfare and highlight the potential use of biomarkers of the proteasome, the autophagy (Beclin-1, LC3-II/LC3-I ratio) and the muscle antioxidant defence (TAA, LPO) for detection of peri-slaughter stress.
This paper is the fourth in a 5-part series that focuses on educating and training the clinical and translational science workforce. The goal of this paper is to delineate components of effective career development programs that go beyond didactic training. All academic health centers with a Clinical and Translational Science Award have a KL2 career development award for junior faculty, and many also have a TL1 training program for predoctoral and postdoctoral fellows. The training across these programs varies, however junior investigators across the United States experience similar challenges. Junior investigators can get overwhelmed with the demands of building their own research program, particularly in academia. 1Often, they are sidetracked by competing demands that can derail their progress. In these situations, junior investigators experience frustration and may search for alternative career paths. By providing them with additional professional skills in the 5 domains of: (1) self-awareness; (2) selecting the right topic and securing funding; (3) getting adequate support; (4) working with others; and (5) managing yourself, your career, and your demands. We will give junior investigators additional tools to manage these demands and facilitate their own career success.
Recent studies of WNh stars at the cores of young massive clusters have challenged the previously accepted upper stellar mass limit (~150 M⊙), suggesting some of these objects may have initial masses as high as 300 M⊙. We investigated the possible existence of observed stars above ~150 M⊙ by i) examining the nature and stellar properties of VFTS 682, a recently identified WNh5 very massive star, and ii) studying the uncertainties in the luminosity estimates of R136’s core stars due to crowding. Our spectroscopic analysis reveals that the most massive members of R136 and VFTS 682 are very similar and our K-band photometric study of R136’s core stars shows that the measurements seem to display higher uncertainties than previous studies suggested; moreover, for the most massive stars in the cluster, R136a1 and a2, we found previous magnitudes were underestimated by at least 0.4 mag. As such, luminosities and masses of these stars have to be significantly scaled down, which then also lowers the hitherto observed upper mass limit of stars.
We present a pilot study of using the Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) continuum observations to constrain the density structure in the intermediate wind zone of massive stars, in which the wind is extremely sensitive to clumping.
While progress has been made on understanding how energy is released and deposited along the solar atmosphere during explosive events such as solar flares, the chromospheric and coronal heating through the sudden release of magnetic energy remain an open problem in solar physics. Recent hydrodynamic models allow to investigate the energy deposition along a flare loop and to study the response of the chromosphere. These results have been improved with the consideration of transport and acceleration of particles along the loop. RHESSI and Fermi/GBM X-ray and gamma-ray observations help to constrain the spectral properties of the injected electrons. The excellent spatial, spectral and temporal resolution of IRIS will also help us to constrain properties of explosive events, such as the continuum emission during flares or their emission in the chromosphere.