To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Develop a cross-cultural translation, Swedish to Spanish, of TOOL questionnaire - a previously validated instrument to assess the impact of adverse effects (AE) on the health utilities and health related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
TOOL questionnaire has 8 attributes and 4 levels per domain: mood (anxiety and depression), function capabilities, and AE frequently associated with antipsychotics (fatigue-weakness, weight gain, stiffness-tremor, physical restlessness, sexual dysfunction, and vertigo-nausea). Firstly, 4 independent translators carried out the forward-backward translations. Next, draft version was reviewed by an experts panel (5 psychiatrists & 1 GP specialized in HRQoL) and tested in 40 stable patients (20 schizophrenic & 20 bipolar). Comprehension and importance (C/I) of each item were evaluated by a Likert scale ranging from 0 (lowest level) to 4 (highest level).
3 items should be modified to facilitate comprehension: mood, physical restlessness and vertigo-nausea. However, C/I of items mean scores were respectively: mood (3.50/ 2.37); function capabilities (2.58/ 2.03); fatigue-weakness (3.58/ 2.55); weight gain- (3.75/ 2.87); stiffness-tremor (3.65/ 2.61); restlessness (3.37/ 2.62); sexual dysfunction (3.39/ 2.51) and vertigo-nausea (3.56/ 2.44). Only 2 patients (5%) were unable to complete the questionnaire. Internal consistency was high (Cronbach α= 0.87) and neither item ceiling nor floor effects were found.
The Swedish TOOL questionaire was culturally adapted into Spanish. Psychometric analyses are needed to validate this measure in Spain. A multtiatribute utility fuction should be estimated to evaluate AE by using a patients"centered perspective.
Despite ongoing efforts to motivate politicians and publics in Europe regarding nature conservation, biodiversity continues to decline. Monetary valuation of ecosystem services appears to be insufficient to motivate people, suggesting that non-monetary values have a crucial role to play. There is insufficient information about the motivations of actors who have been instrumental in successful conservation projects. We investigated the motivations underlying these biodiversity actors using the ranking of cards and compared the results with the rankings of motivations of a second group of actors with more socially related interests. For both groups of actors, their action relating to biodiversity was supported in general by two groups of motivations related to living a meaningful life and moral values. The non-biodiversity actors also noted that their action relating to biodiversity rested more on beauty, place attachment and intrinsic values in comparison with their main non-biodiversity interests. Our results have implications for environmental policy and biodiversity conservation in that the current tendency of focusing on the economic valuation of biodiversity fails to address the motivations of successful actors, thereby failing to motivate nature conservation on an individual level.
Craniofacial duplication or diprosopus is a very rare malformation that is present in approximately 0.4% of conjoined twins. Here is presented a case of craniofacial duplication in association with bilateral cleft lip/palate in both heads found in a ceramic representation from the early Chimú culture from Peru. A comparative analysis is made with a current case of a 28-week-old fetus with similar characteristics. After reviewing the medical literature on conjoined twins, very few reports of facial cleft in both twins were found, with no reports at all of bilateral cleft lip/palate. This ceramic crock is considered one of the first representations suggestive of craniofacial duplication, and probably the first reporting it in association with facial cleft.
A stochastic distribution of nanocrystalline sizes model is applied to fit photoluminescence (PL) spectra of luminescent Si nanocrystals in a Si/SiO2 matrix synthesized by RF co-sputtering on the top of quartz substrates. With this method, the PL spectra from a diverse set of samples can be resolved mainly as the sum of two components: a contribution from a gaussian-like distribution of sizes of quantum dots (QD) and a similar component from a distribution of quantum wires (QW). These distributions of sizes and their associated PL energies agree well with the so-called Smart Quantum Confinement model (SQC).