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This article explains why there is important variation in the degree of concentration of legislative specialization across legislative parties. Greater concentration of legislative specialization leads parties to concentrate their legislative efforts on a smaller set of policy jurisdictions. Through enhancing their concentration of legislative specialization in certain policy areas, parties might more clearly signal their policy concerns and interests to voters. This study argues and shows that party size alters the concentration of legislative specialization. In particular, I find that a U-shaped curve defines the relationship between party size and the degree of concentration of legislative specialization: niche parties and the largest parties choose higher levels of concentration of legislative specialization.
Este artículo explica los efectos de la violencia y, en particular, el tipo de violencia relacionado con los cárteles de droga y su influencia sobre la competitividad electoral a nivel local (municipal). Resulta pertinente comprender y estimar este efecto para asegurar que la democracia, definida sobre la base de su requisito más elemental—es decir, elecciones libres y justas —, no se deteriore o transite al autoritarismo en los gobiernos locales. Los resultados revelan un deterioro en la competitividad electoral a nivel local debido a la violencia relacionada con el tráfico ilegal de drogas. Las estrategias represivas del gobierno mexicano no han sido efectivas en prevenir este resultado.
This article investigates the relationship between levels of party institutionalization and individual-level partisan mobilization. Levels of party institutionalization have been linked to macro-level outcomes such as party system stability, but little is known about the micro-level underpinnings of such patterns. This article investigates one set of mechanisms through which party institutionalization might affect electoral outcomes. Specifically, we ask how routinization and value infusion – two central dimensions of party institutionalization – shape partisans’ political mobilization. We investigate these relationships by matching data on individual-level behaviour (taken from the International Social Survey Program (ISSP) 2014 wave) with data on party attributes commonly associated with levels of institutionalization (taken from the Democratic Accountability and Linkages Project – DALP). We find that while value infusion encourages relatively greater participation from non-member supporters, party routinization depresses non-member participation but may mobilize otherwise inactive members. These findings suggest that to understand the effects of party institutionalization on a macro-level phenomenon such as electoral volatility, it may be necessary to study how parties institutionalize, rather than just asking how much they institutionalize.
Healthcare workers (HCWs) not fulfilling the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) case definition underwent severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) screening. Risk of exposure, adherence to personal protective equipment (PPE), and symptoms were assessed. In total, 2,000 HCWs were screened: 5.5% were positive for SARS-CoV-2 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). There were no differences in PPE use between SARS-CoV-2–positive and –negative HCWs (adherence, >90%). Nursing and kitchen staff were independently associated with positive SARS-CoV-2 results.
Different types of behavioural impulsivity have been associated with the development of substance use disorders but little is know about what type of impulsivity is provoked by the effect of chronic use of substances.
Determine what type of behavioural impulsivity was associated with the use of alcohol and cocaine.
Design and measurements:
A prospective cohort study was conducted to identify changes on behavioural impulsivity. Non-dependent heavy drinkers (N=471) were recruited from primary care centres. The following assessments were used at baseline and at the end of the 4-year follow-up period: The continuous performance test (CPT) and stop-signal task (SST) assessed behavioural inhibition. Differential reinforcement for low-rate responding (DRLR) was used to evaluate the delay discounting dimension. Diagnoses were rendered using the Structured Interview for DSM-IV.
Amounts on alcohol and cocaine consumption during follow-up correlated positively with changes on all impulsivity measures. Logistic regression analysis indicated that cocaine used was associated specifically with poor performance on CPT and SST and amount of alcohol used during follow-up was related to changes on DRLR.
Substances provoke different pattern of behavioural impulsivity: chronic cocaine use provokes changes mainly on behavioural inhibition dimension and alcohol use induces changes on delay discounting paradigm.
The link between impulsivity and alcohol use disorders has been established in longitudinal and cross-sectional studies, but little is know about the role of behavioural impulsivity in the development of substance use disorders.
Determine the role of behavioural measures of impulsivity in the development of alcohol use disorders.
Design and measurements:
A prospective cohort study was conducted to identify the risk factors associated with alcohol dependence. Non-dependent heavy drinkers (N=471) and healthy controls (N=149) were recruited from primary care centres. They were assessed at the end of the 4-year follow-up period. Diagnoses were rendered using the Structured Interview for DSM-IV. The continuous performance test (CPT) and stop-signal task (SST) assessed behavioural inhibition. Differential reinforcement for low-rate responding (DRLR) was used to evaluate the delay discounting dimension.
HD participants have significant impairments on all laboratory measures of impulsivity. In the logistic regression model, impairment on DRLR (delay discounting dimension) was the only measure that classified accurately HD. Baseline behavioural measures of impulsivity correlated positively with amount of alcohol consumption during the follow-up period. Logistic regression analysis indicated that performance on inhibitory control (SST) (behavioural inhibition dimension) was a significant predictor (odds=1.52[1.08-2.31]) for developing alcohol dependence.
Our data support the link between behavioural measures of impulsivity and alcohol use disorders. Delay discounting dimension may be a risk factor for begin alcohol use heavily and behavioural inhibition impairment is more involved in the development of dependence.
Fibromyalgia and ADHD share some clinical features, and a reduced dopamine function has been proposed for both disorders. Here we found, in a large sample of fibromyalgia female patients, a higher frequency of childhood ADHD antecedent when compared with healthy women. Our data suggest that Fibromyalgia and ADHD have some common etiopathological mechanism.
Genomic and genetic variation among six Italian chicken native breeds (Livornese, Mericanel della Brianza, Milanino, Bionda Piemontese, Bianca di Saluzzo and Siciliana) were studied using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and copy number variants (CNV) as markers. A total of 94 DNA samples genotyped with Axiom® Genome-Wide Chicken Genotyping Array (Affymetrix) were used in the analyses. The results showed the genetic and genomic variability occurring among the six Italian chicken breeds. The genetic relationship among animals was established with a principal component analysis. The genetic diversity within breeds was calculated using heterozygosity values (expected and observed) and with Wright’s F-statistics. The individual-based CNV calling, based on log R ratio and B-allele frequency values, was done by the Hidden–Markov Model (HMM) of PennCNV software on autosomes. A hierarchical agglomerative clustering was applied in each population according to the absence or presence of definite CNV regions (CNV were grouped by overlapping of at least 1 bp). The CNV map was built on a total of 1003 CNV found in individual samples, after grouping by overlaps, resulting in 564 unique CNV regions (344 gains, 213 losses and 7 complex), for a total of 9.43 Mb of sequence and 1.03% of the chicken assembly autosome. All the approaches using SNP data showed that the Siciliana breed clearly differentiate from other populations, the Livornese breed separates into two distinct groups according to the feather colour (i.e. white and black) and the Bionda Piemontese and Bianca di Saluzzo breeds are closely related. The genetic variability found using SNP is comparable with that found by other authors in the same breeds using microsatellite markers. The CNV markers analysis clearly confirmed the SNP results.
Although numerous scholars have analyzed the effects of natural resource extraction at the national level, few have explored it systematically at the local level. Focusing on Peru, where both mining production and local social protests have greatly increased in recent years and where a new tax has required mining companies to transfer revenue to subnational governments, this study explores the resource curse at the local level. In particular, why do protests arise mostly in the areas of natural resource extraction? Employing subnational data for Peru for the period 2004–9 and LAPOP survey data from 2010, the research confirms previous findings that social conflict is provoked by both the negative externalities of mining and the revenues from the new tax. The article further demonstrates that local bureaucratic capacity is a significant independent variable. Greater subnational bureaucratic capacity can ameliorate the pernicious societal effects of a local resource curse.
For patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate (TRUBP), use of rectal screening culture results to guide antimicrobial prophylaxis was effective for prevention of fluoro-quinolone-resistant Escherichia coli infections. In practice, elimination of infections after TRUBP required the rectal screening protocol and addition of gentamicin for patients missing prior screening.
This article extends the analysis of political parties in electorally volatile and organizationally weak party systems by evaluating two implications centered on legislative voting behavior. First, it examines whether disunity prevails where weakness of programmatic and electoral commonalities abound. Second, it analyzes whether inchoate party systems weaken the ability of government parties to control the congressional agenda. The empirical analysis centers on Peru, a classic example of a weakly institutionalized party system, and how its legislative parties compare to those of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and the United States. The results lend support to the view that lower unity characterizes weakly institutionalized settings. The agenda-setting power of government parties, however, appears to be influenced more by the majority status of the government than by the level of party system institutionalization.
Information on the performance of the Rothamsted organic carbon turnover model (RothC model) in predicting changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) in short-term experiments is scarce. In Mexico, it was found that these experiments covered not more than 20 years. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate short-term SOC prediction performance of the RothC model in the following systems: (1) farming with residues added (A+R), (2) farming with no added residues (A−R), (3) pure forest stands (F), (4) grasslands (GR) and (5) rangeland (RL). Work was done in five experimental sites: Atécuaro, Michoacán; Santiago Tlalpan, Tlaxcala; El Batán, State of Mexico; Sierra Norte, Oaxaca; and Linares, Nuevo León. Carbon (C) inputs to the soil were plant residues and organic fertilizers, which need to be known to operate the RothC model. The adjustment coefficients for site modelling had R2 values of 0·77–0·95 and model efficiency (EF) was −0·60 to 0·93. When RothC performance was evaluated by a system, R2 values were 0·06–0·92 and EF was −0·24 to 0·90. The low R2 and EF values in rangelands were attributed to the fact that these systems are complex because of heterogeneous vegetation, soil and climate. In general, the evaluation of the RothC model indicates that it can be useful in simulating SOC changes in temperate and warm climate sites and in farming, forest and grassland systems in Mexico.