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We study heat transfer in plane Couette flow laden with rigid spherical particles by means of direct numerical simulations. In the simulations we use a direct-forcing immersed boundary method to account for the dispersed phase together with a volume-of-fluid approach to solve the temperature field inside and outside the particles. We focus on the variation of the heat transfer with the particle Reynolds number, total volume fraction (number of particles) and the ratio between the particle and fluid thermal diffusivity, quantified in terms of an effective suspension diffusivity. We show that, when inertia at the particle scale is negligible, the heat transfer increases with respect to the unladen case following an empirical correlation recently proposed in the literature. In addition, an average composite diffusivity can be used to approximate the effective diffusivity of the suspension in the inertialess regime when varying the molecular diffusion in the two phases. At finite particle inertia, however, the heat transfer increase is significantly larger, smoothly saturating at higher volume fractions. By phase-ensemble-averaging we identify the different mechanisms contributing to the total heat transfer and show that the increase of the effective conductivity observed at finite inertia is due to the increase of the transport associated with fluid and particle velocity. We also show that the contribution of the heat conduction in the solid phase to the total wall-normal heat flux reduces when increasing the particle Reynolds number, so that particles of low thermal diffusivity weakly alter the total heat flux in the suspension at finite particle Reynolds numbers. On the other hand, a higher particle thermal diffusivity significantly increases the total heat transfer.
We study suspensions of oblate rigid particles in a viscous fluid for different values of the particle volume fractions. Direct numerical simulations have been performed using a direct-forcing immersed boundary method to account for the dispersed phase, combined with a soft-sphere collision model and lubrication corrections for short-range particle–particle and particle–wall interactions. With respect to the single-phase flow, we show that in flows laden with oblate spheroids the drag is reduced and the turbulent fluctuations attenuated. In particular, the turbulence activity decreases to lower values than those obtained by accounting only for the effective suspension viscosity. To explain the observed drag reduction, we consider the particle dynamics and the interactions of the particles with the turbulent velocity field and show that the particle–wall layer, previously observed and found to be responsible for the increased dissipation in suspensions of spheres, disappears in the case of oblate particles. These rotate significantly slower than spheres near the wall and tend to stay with their major axes parallel to the wall, which leads to a decrease of the Reynolds stresses and turbulence production and so to the overall drag reduction.
Particulate flows have mainly been studied under the simplifying assumption of a one-way coupling regime where the disperse phase does not modify the carrier fluid. A more complete view of multiphase flows can be gained calling into play two-way coupling effects, i.e. by accounting for the inter-phase momentum exchange, which is certainly relevant at increasing mass loading. In this paper we present a new methodology rigorously designed to capture the inter-phase momentum exchange for particles smaller than the smallest hydrodynamical scale, e.g. the Kolmogorov scale in a turbulent flow. The momentum coupling mechanism exploits the unsteady Stokes flow around a small rigid sphere, where the transient disturbance produced by each particle is evaluated in a closed form. The particles are described as lumped point masses, which would lead to the appearance of singularities. A rigorous regularization procedure is conceived to extract the physically relevant interactions between the particles and the fluid which avoids any ‘ad hoc’ assumption. The approach is suited for high-efficiency implementation on massively parallel machines since the transient disturbance produced by the particles is strongly localized in space. We will show that hundreds of thousands of particles can be handled at an affordable computational cost, as demonstrated by a preliminary application to a particle-laden turbulent shear flow.
Turbulent fluctuations induce the common phenomenon known as clustering in the spatial arrangement of small inertial particles transported by the fluid. Particles spread non-uniformly, and form clusters where their local concentration is much higher than in nearby rarefaction regions. The underlying physics has been exhaustively analysed in the so-called one-way coupling regime, i.e. negligible back-reaction of the particles on the fluid, where the mean flow anisotropy induces preferential orientation of the clusters. Turbulent transport in suspensions with significant mass in the disperse phase, i.e. particles back-reacting in the carrier phase (the two-way coupling regime), has instead been much less investigated and is still poorly understood. The issue is discussed here by addressing direct numerical simulations of particle-laden homogeneous shear flows in the two-way coupling regime. Consistent with previous findings, we observe an overall depletion of the turbulent fluctuations for particles with response time of the order of the Kolmogorov time scale. The depletion occurs in the energy-containing range, while augmentation is observed in the small-scale range down to the dissipative scales. Increasing the mass load results in substantial broadening of the energy cospectrum, thereby extending the range of scales driven by anisotropic production mechanisms. As discussed throughout the paper, this is due to the clusters which form the spatial support of the back-reaction field and give rise to a highly anisotropic forcing, active down to the smallest scales. A certain impact on two-phase flow turbulence modelling is expected from the above conclusions, since the frequently assumed small-scale isotropy is poorly recovered when the coupling between the phases becomes significant.
The Cahn–Hilliard model is increasingly often being used in combination with the incompressible Navier–Stokes equation to describe unsteady binary fluids in a variety of applications ranging from turbulent two-phase flows to microfluidics. The thickness of the interface between the two bulk fluids and the mobility are the main parameters of the model. For real fluids they are usually too small to be directly used in numerical simulations. Several authors proposed criteria for the proper choice of interface thickness and mobility in order to reach the so-called ‘sharp-interface limit’. In this paper the problem is approached by a formal asymptotic expansion of the governing equations. It is shown that the mobility is an effective parameter to be chosen proportional to the square of the interface thickness. The theoretical results are confirmed by numerical simulations for two prototypal flows, namely capillary waves riding the interface and droplets coalescence. The numerical analysis of two different physical problems confirms the theoretical findings and establishes an optimal relationship between the effective parameters of the model.
Results are presented from a direct numerical simulation of a particle-laden spatially developing turbulent boundary layer up to . The peculiar feature of a boundary-layer flow seeded with heavy particles is the variation of the local dimensionless parameters defining the fluid–particle interactions along the streamwise direction. Two different Stokes numbers can be defined, one using inner flow units and the other with outer units. Since these two Stokes numbers exhibit different decay rates in the streamwise direction, we find a decoupled particle dynamics between the inner and the outer region of the boundary layer. Preferential near-wall particle accumulation is similar to that observed in turbulent channel flow, while different behaviour characterizes the outer region. Here the concentration and the streamwise velocity profiles are found to be self-similar and to depend only on the local value of the outer Stokes number and the rescaled wall-normal distance. These new results are powerful in view of engineering and environmental applications and corresponding flow modelling.
We study the two main phenomenologies associated with the transport of inertial particles in turbulent flows, turbophoresis and small-scale clustering. Turbophoresis describes the turbulence-induced wall accumulation of particles dispersed in wall turbulence, while small-scale clustering is a form of local segregation that affects the particle distribution in the presence of fine-scale turbulence. Despite the fact that the two aspects are usually addressed separately, this paper shows that they occur simultaneously in wall-bounded flows, where they represent different aspects of the same process. We study these phenomena by post-processing data from a direct numerical simulation of turbulent channel flow with different populations of inertial particles. It is shown that artificial domain truncation can easily alter the mean particle concentration profile, unless the domain is large enough to exclude possible correlation of the turbulence and the near-wall particle aggregates. The data show a strong link between accumulation level and clustering intensity in the near-wall region. At statistical steady state, most accumulating particles aggregate in strongly directional and almost filamentary structures, as found by considering suitable two-point observables able to extract clustering intensity and anisotropy. The analysis provides quantitative indications of the wall-segregation process as a function of the particle inertia. It is shown that, although the most wall-accumulating particles are too heavy to segregate in homogeneous turbulence, they exhibit the most intense local small-scale clustering near the wall as measured by the singularity exponent of the particle pair correlation function.
Recently, clustering of inertial particles in turbulence has been thoroughly analysed for statistically homogeneous isotropic flows. Phenomenologically, spatial homogeneity of particle configurations is broken by the advection of a range of eddies determined by the Stokes relaxation time of the particles. This in turn results in a multi-scale distribution of local particle concentration and voids. Much less is known concerning anisotropic flows. Here, by addressing direct numerical simulations (DNS) of a statistically steady particle-laden homogeneous shear flow, we provide evidence that the mean shear preferentially orients particle patterns. By imprinting anisotropy on large-scale velocity fluctuations, the shear indirectly affects the geometry of the clusters. Quantitative evaluation is provided by a purposely designed tool, the angular distribution function (ADF) of particle pairs, which allows to address the anisotropy content of particle aggregates on a scale-by-scale basis. The data provide evidence that, depending on the Stokes relaxation time of the particles, anisotropic clustering may occur even in the range of scales in which the carrier phase velocity field is already recovering isotropy. The strength of the singularity in the anisotropic component of the ADF quantifies the level of fine-scale anisotropy, which may even reach values of more than 30% direction-dependent variation in the probability to find two closeby particles at viscous-scale separation.
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