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Oxidative stress suposses an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants molecules. Negative and positive family environment have been related with worse and better outcomes respectively in schizophrenic patients.
Our objetive is to determine antioxidant defense in healthy controls and unaffected relatives of early onset psychosis patients and to asses its relationship with familiar environment.
We included 82 healthy controls (HC) and 14 healthy controls with second degree family history of psychosis (HCWFHP), aged between 9 to 17.
Total antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation test were determined in plasma and antioxidant enzime activities and glutathione levels were determined in erytrocytes.
We used the Global Assesment Functioning scale (GAF) and the Family Environment Scale (FES). The FES is made up of ten subscales: cohesion, expressiveness, conflict, independence, achievement, intellectual-cultural, social, moral, organization and control.
The analyses showed a significant decrease in total antioxidant level in HCWFHP compared with the HC (U Mann Withney = 281.00, p=0.009, effect size= -0.78).
HC and HCWFHP did not differ in the GAF scale, nevertheless the scores of HCWFHP were significantly higher in cohesion and intellectual-cultural dimensions of the FES (p=0.007, p=0.025).
Adjusting by this two FES dimensions, antioxidant status remained significantly different between groups: OR= 10.86, p=0.009.
Although we cannot induce causative relations, we can state that family environment is not playing a role in inducing oxidative stress in these subjects. It could be hypothesized that families with affected relatives protect themselves with positive envionmental factors such as cohesion and intellectual-cultural activities.
This study attempted to determine whether Anorexia nervosa (AN), Bulimia nervosa (BN) and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) share clinical and psychopathological traits.
The sample consisted of 90 female patients (30 OCD; 30 AN; 30 BN), who had been consecutively referred to our Unit. All subjects met DSM-IV criteria for those pathologies. The assessment consisted on the Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory, Questionnaire of obsessive traits and personality by Vallejo, Eating Attitudes Test-40, Eating Disorder Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory. ANCOVA tests (adjusted for age and body mass index) and multiple linear regression models based on obsessive-compulsiveness, obsessive personality traits and perfectionism, as independent variables, were applied to determine the best predictors of eating disorder severity.
ANCOVA revealed several significant differences between obsessive-compulsive and eating disordered patients (MOCI, p < 0.001; EAT, p < 0.001; EDI, p < 0.001), whereas some obsessive personality traits were not eating disorder-specific. 16.7% OCD presented a comorbid eating disorder, whereas 3.3% eating disorders had an OCD diagnosis. In the eating disorder group, the presence of OC symptomatology was positively associated (r = 0.57, p < 0.001) with the severity of the eating disorder. The results were maintained after adjusting for comorbidity.
Although some obsessive-compulsive and eating disorder patients share common traits (e.g. some personality traits especially between OCD and AN), both disorders seem to be clinically and psychopathologically different.
People with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are more likely to smoke, smoke more cigarettes per day and have greater mortality from smoking-related disease than those in the general population.
To describe the sample and to identify the relationship between the pattern of tobacco use and psychopathology.
Multicenter, observational, prospective, 12-month follow up study to assess the clinical efficacy of a multicomponent smoking cessation program specifically designed for patients with severe mental illness.
65 patients from 3 Mental Health Centers sited in Spain [64.6% males; mean age (SD) = 44.63 (8.93)].
(1) Pattern of tobacco use: Fargerstrom Test for Nicotine physical Dependence; Glover-Nilsson Test for Nicotine psychological Dependence; expired carbon monoxide (CO); n° cigarettes/day; n° smoking years.
Schizophrenia 64.6% and bipolar 26.2%; suicide attempts 36.9% (2.83 mean of suicide attemps); economically active 7.7%. There is no differences: in psychopatology severity between “heavy smokers” (ppm ≥ 26 or n° cigarettes/day ≥ 30) and “non heavy smokers” (ppm < 26 or n° cigarettes/day < 30) and in the pattern of tobacco use between schizophrenia and bipolar patients. There is no relationship between psychopatology severity and the pattern of tobacco use in schizophrenia patients. Finally, there is relationship between depressive symptoms (Hamilton) and nicotine psychological dependence (Glover-Nilsson Test) in bipolar disorder patients (r = 0.72, p = 0.004).
In bipolar disorder patients, there is relationship between the severity of depressive symptoms and the dependence of nicotine.
This study was performed to identify the predictive factors of functional capacity assessed by the Spanish University of California Performance Skills Assessment (Sp-UPSA) and real-world functioning assessed by the Spanish Personal and Social Performance scale (PSP) in outpatients with schizophrenia.
Naturalistic, 6-month follow-up, multicentre, validation study. Here, we report data on 139 patients with schizophrenia at their baseline visit. Assessment: Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S), Sp-UPSA and PSP. Statistics: Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) was used to determine the relationships between variables, and multivariable stepwise linear regression analyses to identify predictive variables of Sp-UPSA and PSP total scores.
Functional capacity: scores on the PSP and PANSS-GP entered first and second at P < 0.0001 and accounted for 21% of variance (R2 = 0.208, model df = 2, F = 15.724, P < 0.0001). Real-world functioning: scores on the CGI-S (B = −5.406), PANSS-N (B = −0.657) and Sp-UPSA (B = 0.230) entered first, second and third, and accounted for 51% of variance (model df = 3, F = 37.741, P < 0.0001).
In patients with schizophrenia, functional capacity and real-world functioning are two related but different constructs. Each one predicts the other along with other factors; general psychopathology for functional capacity, and severity of the illness and negative symptoms for real-world functioning. These findings have important clinical implications: (1) both types of functioning should be assessed in patients with schizophrenia and (2) strategies for improving them should be different.
NGC 7469 is a well-known type 1 AGN with a cirumnuclear star formation ring. It has previous detections of X-rays warm absorbers and an infrared biconical outflow. We analysed archival MUSE/VLT observations of this galaxy in order to look for an optical counterpart of these outflows. We report spatially resolved winds in the [O III] λ5007 emission line in two regimes: a high velocity regime possibly associated with the AGN and a slower one associated with the massive star formation of the ring. This slower regime is also detected with Hβ.
The research has shown the interesting contributions of shearing in mid-gestation on the performance of lambs from birth to weaning. Other studies have reported that shearing at early pregnancy influences the development of the placenta and lamb live weight at birth. However, there was a lack of information on the effect of early-prepartum shearing on the behavior of the offspring from weaning onward. This study evaluated the effect of shearing ewes at 50 days of gestation on the growth, reproductive behavior and response to a gastrointestinal parasite challenge in the female offspring from weaning to 18 months old. Fifty-seven Polwarth female lambs were used, 22 being singles and 35 twins born to ewes either shorn at 50 days of pregnancy (PS, n = 23) or shorn at 62 days postpartum (U, control, n = 34) resulting in four subgroups: single lambs born to PS ewes (n = 8), born to U ewes (n = 14), twin lambs born to PS ewes (n = 15) or born to U ewes (n = 20). All progeny were managed together under improved pasture with a minimum forage allowance of 6% live weight on dry basis. Body weight, body condition score and fecal eggs count were recorded every 14 days from weaning to 18 months of age. Concentrations of progesterone were measured weekly (from 4 to 10 months of age and from 14 to 18 months of age) to establish the onset of puberty. Ovulation rate at an induced and a natural heat (545 ± 1.0 and 562 ± 1.0 day old) was recorded. Prepartum shearing did not affect the age at puberty or the ovulation rate of female offspring, but those born as singles were more precocious ( P = 0.03) and heavier ( P = 0.02) at puberty than twin born lambs. Both the average value of parasite egg count ( P = 0.0 7) and the Famacha index ( P = 0.02) for the entire study period were lower in lambs born to prepartum shorn ewes than those born to postpartum shorn ewes. In conclusion, shearing at 50 days of gestation did not affect the growth or the reproductive behavior of female offspring. However, female lambs born from ewe shorn during gestation showed a better response to the parasitic challenge, and further research is required to confirm this.
TAOS II is a next-generation occultation survey with the goal of measuring the size distribution of the small end of the Kuiper Belt (objects with diameters 0.5–30 km). Such objects have magnitudes r > 30, and are thus undetectable by direct imaging. The project will operate three telescopes at San Pedro Mártir Observatory in Baja California, México. Each telescope will be equipped with a custom-built camera comprised of a focal-plane array of CMOS imagers. The cameras will be capable of reading out image data from 10,000 stars at a cadence of 20 Hz. The telescopes will monitor the same set of stars simultaneously to search for coincident occultation detections, thus minimising the false-positive rate. This talk described the project, and reported on the progress of the development of the survey infrastructure.
The Euclid space mission proposes to survey 15000 square degrees of the extragalactic sky during 6 years, with a step-and-stare technique. The scheduling of observation sequences is driven by the primary scientific objectives, spacecraft constraints, calibration requirements and physical properties of the sky. We present the current reference implementation of the Euclid survey and on-going work on survey optimization.
The main goal of the current work was to develop and validate an in vitro fluke egg hatch test, as a method for the detection of albendazole (ABZ) resistance in the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica. Fluke eggs (200/ml, n= 5) from six different isolates were used in the current experimental work. They were obtained from different geographical locations and named Cullompton (UK), CEDIVE (Chascomus, Argentina), INTA-Bariloche (Bariloche, Argentina), Rubino (Uruguay), Cajamarca (Perú) and Río Chico (Catamarca, Argentina). The fluke eggs were incubated (25°C) for a 12-h period in the presence of either ABZ or its sulphoxide metabolite (ABZ.SO) (5, 0.5 or 0.05 nmol/ml). Untreated eggs were incubated as a control. Incubated eggs (with or without drug present) were kept in darkness at 25°C for 15 days. Afterwards, the trematode eggs were exposed to daylight over a 2-h period. Hatched and unhatched eggs were evaluated using an optical microscope, and the ovicidal activity was assessed for each fluke isolate. A very low ovicidal activity ( ≤ 13.4%) was observed in the ABZ-resistant CEDIVE isolate for both ABZ and ABZ.SO. Conversely, in the INTA-Bariloche and Río Chico isolates, which are suspected to be susceptible to ABZ, ovicidal activities ≥ 70.3% were observed after incubation with ABZ at the lowest concentration tested (0.05 nmol/ml). This finding correlates with that previously described for the ABZ-susceptible Cullompton. Finally, the Cajamarca and Rubino isolates behaved as ABZ resistant, since no ovicidal activity was observed after eggs were incubated with ABZ at 0.5 nmol/ml. Considering the specific results obtained for each isolate under assessment, the egg hatch test described here may be a suitable method for detection of ABZ resistance in F. hepatica.
LOFT (Large Observatory For X-ray Timing) is one of the four candidate missions currently
under assessment study for the M3 mission in ESAs Cosmic Vision program to be launched in
2024. LOFT will carry two instruments with prime sensitivity in the 2–30 keV range: a 10
m2 class large area detector (LAD) with a <1° collimated field of view
and a wide field monitor (WFM) instrument. The WFM is based on the coded mask principle,
and 5 camera units will provide coverage of more than 1/3 of the sky. The prime goal of
the WFM is to detect transient sources to be observed by the LAD. With its wide field of
view and good energy resolution of <500 eV, the WFM will be an excellent instrument
for detecting and studying GRBs and X-ray flashes. The WFM will be able to detect
~150 gamma ray bursts per year, and a burst alert system will enable the
distribution of ~100 GRB positions per year with a ~1 arcmin location
accuracy within 30 s of the burst.
The effects of bread consumption change over time on anthropometric measures have been scarcely studied. We analysed 2213 participants at high risk for CVD from the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) trial to assess the association between changes in the consumption of bread and weight and waist circumference gain over time. Dietary habits were assessed with validated FFQ at baseline and repeatedly every year during 4 years of follow-up. Using multivariate models to adjust for covariates, long-term weight and waist circumference changes according to quartiles of change in energy-adjusted white and whole-grain bread consumption were calculated. The present results showed that over 4 years, participants in the highest quartile of change in white bread intake gained 0·76 kg more than those in the lowest quartile (P for trend = 0·003) and 1·28 cm more than those in the lowest quartile (P for trend < 0·001). No significant dose–response relationships were observed for change in whole-bread consumption and anthropometric measures. Gaining weight (>2 kg) and gaining waist circumference (>2 cm) during follow-up was not associated with increase in bread consumption, but participants in the highest quartile of changes in white bread intake had a reduction of 33 % in the odds of losing weight (>2 kg) and a reduction of 36 % in the odds of losing waist circumference (>2 cm). The present results suggest that reducing white bread, but not whole-grain bread consumption, within a Mediterranean-style food pattern setting is associated with lower gains in weight and abdominal fat.
Serrana de Teruel is an endangered cattle breed raised traditionally in the mountainous areas of Southern Aragon (Spain). With the aim of recovering the breed, a characterization was carried out to determine the morphology, husbandry and genetic values of the Serrana de Teruel breed. Individuals showed a medium to high degree of homogeneity and harmony, most of the animals being of straight profile, and eumetrical and sublongilineal individuals, although smaller in size than other phylogenetically proximate breeds. Biodiversity studies showed good diversity values despite the breed's low effective population size (240 individuals in 2010). These studies provided the basis for a sustainable programme of genetic conservation. In order to guarantee long-term maintenance, germplasm banks contain 6400 doses of semen and 74 embryos. Concurrently, the commercial viability of the breed was studied by means of an analysis of carcass and meat quality from three commercial categories – yearling, bull and steer (castrated at 9 months old) – with ages at slaughter of 12, 22 and 22 months and live weights of 470, 720 and 660 kg,, respectively. Good performances and high-quality products with no commercial constraints in the beef market were obtained. Finally, a prospective study for a new beef quality product labelled ‘Serrana de Teruel’ was performed, according to the opinions of experts. These studies provide the standard requirements for the alternative production of a labelled beef product that might create an incentive for the production of the Serrana de Teruel breed among other breeds, and thus favour the conservation of the breed in the medium term.
Tributyrin (TBT) is a TAG composed of three butyric acids that has beneficial effects on ulcerative colitis due to its trophic, anti-inflammatory, pro-apoptotic and anti-carcinogenic properties. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and mechanisms of action of TBT supplementation in the prevention of mucosal damage in experimental colitis. Mice received either a control diet or a TBT-supplemented diet for 15 d. Colitis was induced by dextran sodium sulphate administration during the last 7 d. Mucosal damage and the activation of immune cells and cytokines were determined by histological score, flow cytometry and ELISA. Leucocyte rolling and adhesion were assessed by intravital microscopy. Oxidative stress was determined by monitoring hydroperoxide concentration and evaluating superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities. Intestinal permeability was analysed using diethylenetriaminepentaacetate acid (99mTcDTPA). Compared with the colitis group, the animals in the colitis+TBT group had reduced mucosal damage and neutrophil and eosinophil mucosal infiltration, which were associated with a higher percentage of regulatory T cells (Treg) and higher levels of transforming growth factor β and IL-10 in the lamina propria. The level of in vivo leucocyte adhesion in the colon microvasculature was reduced after TBT supplementation. A lower level of hydroperoxide and higher levels of SOD and catalase activities were associated with TBT supplementation. TBT-supplemented mice showed reduced intestinal permeability to the levels intermediate between the control and colitis groups. In conclusion, the present results show that TBT has positive effects on colonic restructuring in experimental colitis. Additionally, TBT supplementation changes the immune response by controlling inflammation and regulating the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines and Treg.
The present work shows results on elemental distribution analyses in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films for solar cells performed by use of wavelength-dispersive and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) in a scanning electron microscope, EDX in a transmission electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron, angle-dependent soft X-ray emission, secondary ion-mass (SIMS), time-of-flight SIMS, sputtered neutral mass, glow-discharge optical emission and glow-discharge mass, Auger electron, and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, by use of scanning Auger electron microscopy, Raman depth profiling, and Raman mapping, as well as by use of elastic recoil detection analysis, grazing-incidence X-ray and electron backscatter diffraction, and grazing-incidence X-ray fluorescence analysis. The Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films used for the present comparison were produced during the same identical deposition run and exhibit thicknesses of about 2 μm. The analysis techniques were compared with respect to their spatial and depth resolutions, measuring speeds, availabilities, and detection limits.
In recent years there has been increasing interest in functional recovery in the early phase of schizophrenia. Concurrently, new remission criteria have been proposed and several studies have examined their clinical relevance for prediction of functional outcome in first-episode psychosis (FEP). However, the longitudinal interrelationship between full functional recovery (FFR) and symptom remission has not yet been investigated. This study sought to: (1) examine the relationships between FFR and symptom remission in FEP over 7.5 years; (2) test two different models of the interaction between both variables.
Altogether, 209 FEP patients treated at a specialized early psychosis service were assessed at baseline, 8 months, 14 months and 7.5 years to determine their remission of positive and negative symptoms and functional recovery. Multivariate logistic regression and path analysis were employed to test the hypothesized relationships between symptom remission and FFR.
Remission of both positive and negative symptoms at 8-month follow-up predicted functional recovery at 14-month follow-up, but had limited value for the prediction of FFR at 7.5 years. Functional recovery at 14-month follow-up significantly predicted both FFR and remission of negative symptoms at 7.5 years, irrespective of whether remission criteria were simultaneously met. The association remained significant after controlling for baseline prognostic indicators.
These findings provided support for the hypothesis that early functional and vocational recovery plays a pivotal role in preventing the development of chronic negative symptoms and disability. This underlines the need for interventions that specifically address early psychosocial recovery.
Profiles of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) seroprevalence have shown large variability in European countries in which vaccination has not been implemented. Differences in micro and macro population structures (e.g. household and municipality, respectively) may explain such variability, which is the focus of a population-based study of varicella in 12 000 children from 7800 French households in Corsica. The cumulative incidence was 89% at age 11 years, as the median age at infection was 5 years in first-born children, but decreased to 3·9 years in younger siblings. Hazard of infection in households increased as the first-born child initially enrolled in primary school. Age at infection was higher in less populated areas. Household attack rates increased with age (55% in <6 months, >90% in >3 years) and household secondary attack rate was ∼70%. Several levels of population structure independently affect age at varicella infection.