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The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in shortages of personal protective equipment (PPE), underscoring the urgent need for simple, efficient, and inexpensive methods to decontaminate masks and respirators exposed to severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We hypothesized that methylene blue (MB) photochemical treatment, which has various clinical applications, could decontaminate PPE contaminated with coronavirus.
The 2 arms of the study included (1) PPE inoculation with coronaviruses followed by MB with light (MBL) decontamination treatment and (2) PPE treatment with MBL for 5 cycles of decontamination to determine maintenance of PPE performance.
MBL treatment was used to inactivate coronaviruses on 3 N95 filtering facepiece respirator (FFR) and 2 medical mask models. We inoculated FFR and medical mask materials with 3 coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, and we treated them with 10 µM MB and exposed them to 50,000 lux of white light or 12,500 lux of red light for 30 minutes. In parallel, integrity was assessed after 5 cycles of decontamination using multiple US and international test methods, and the process was compared with the FDA-authorized vaporized hydrogen peroxide plus ozone (VHP+O3) decontamination method.
Overall, MBL robustly and consistently inactivated all 3 coronaviruses with 99.8% to >99.9% virus inactivation across all FFRs and medical masks tested. FFR and medical mask integrity was maintained after 5 cycles of MBL treatment, whereas 1 FFR model failed after 5 cycles of VHP+O3.
MBL treatment decontaminated respirators and masks by inactivating 3 tested coronaviruses without compromising integrity through 5 cycles of decontamination. MBL decontamination is effective, is low cost, and does not require specialized equipment, making it applicable in low- to high-resource settings.
Progress in the management of complex congenital heart disease (CHD) led to an improvement in survival rates of adults with a Fontan-like circulation. The objective of this study was to assess the subjective health status and quality of life of this population.
Methods and results:
Patients aged more than 18 years at the time of the study, who underwent a Fontan-like procedure. Subjective health status was assessed by the SF-36 questionnaire and a linear analog scale was used to score patients’ self-perception of their quality of life; cardiac and demographic parameters were collected.
Among 65 eligible patients, 60 (23 females; mean ± SD age: 25.7 ± 7.2 years) answered the SF-36 questionnaire and 46 of these were interviewed to evaluate their perceived quality of life. Among them, 20 (33.3%) were working full-time and 21 (35%) experienced arrhythmias. The physical SF-36 scores were lower in patients than in the general population (p ≤ 0.05). The New York Hear Association (NYHA) class and occupation were correlated with SF-36 scores of physical activity (respectively, p = 0.0001 and p = 0.025). SF-36 scores of psychological status were associated with the number of drugs and occupation (respectively, p = 0.0001 and p = 0.02). The mean ± SD quality of life score measured using a linear analog scale was 7.02 ± 1.6 and was linked to education and occupation (p ≤ 0.05) but not with cardiac parameters.
Adult Fontan patients perceive an impaired physical health but report a good overall quality of life. Education and occupation impacts significantly on Fontan patients’ quality of life.
Mme L., 90 ans, était traitée en 3e intention par rispéridone 0,5 mg puis 1 mg durant 7 jours dans le cadre d’un trouble anxieux généralisé décompensé avec agitation. Une rhabdomyolyse et une cytolyse hépatique ont été découvertes fortuitement, associées à des signes cliniques de syndrome malin des neuroleptiques (SMNL) débutant. Les anomalies cliniques et paracliniques ont été résolutives 7 jours après l’arrêt de la rispéridone.
Nous avons réalisé une revue de la littérature sur le SMNL chez le sujet âgé de plus de 65 ans dans la base de données gratuite de Pubmed entre 1985 et 2014.
Parmi les patients retrouvés, la majorité étaient des hommes âgés de plus de 80 ans. Les pathologies traitées étaient représentées pour moitié par des pathologies neurodégénératives. Les différentes classes d’antipsychotiques étaient représentées, avec notamment : halopéridol, dropéridol, chlorpromazine, trifluopérazine, méthotrimeprazine, loxapine, sulpiride ainsi que risperidone et olanzapine. L’augmentation récente des doses semblait être un facteur favorisant. Les délais d’apparition étaient immédiat (< 48 h), précoce (2 à 15 jours), ou tardif (> 15 jours) dans la plupart des cas. Les signes cardinaux du SMNL étaient présents dans la plupart des cas, associés à une augmentation systématique des CPK. On note 50 % de mortalité.
La spécificité chez le sujet âgé semble être une mortalité plus élevée qu’en population générale. Les facteurs de risque tels les pathologies neurodégénératives sont analysés. Les auteurs interrogent le rapport bénéfice/risque de la prescription des antipsychotiques chez la personne âgée.
Depuis près d’un demi-siècle, un grand nombre d’études scientifiques ont permis d’approfondir les connaissances sur les liens existant entre anomalies de la concentration des hormones thyroïdiennes et les maladies psychiatriques. Aujourd’hui, il est démontré chez l’animal que l’administration de tri-iodothyronine (T3) augmente les taux cérébraux de sérotonine et qu’un état d’hypothyroïdie est associé à une diminution de la synthèse sérotoninergique. Chez l’Homme, il existe des preuves indirectes qu’une hypothyroïdie entraîne une hyposérotoninergie cérébrale, corrigée par traitement hormonal substitutif avec amélioration clinique. L’Agence américaine de psychiatrie recommande l’administration de la T3 en traitement adjuvant aux antidépresseurs comme alternative dans la dépression résistante. À travers une revue de littérature utilisant les bases de données Pubmed/Medline et Cochrane, nous faisons le point sur les travaux ayant étudié l’intérêt de l’administration de la T3, d’une part, en co-introduction avec un inhibiteur sélectif de la recapture de la sérotonine (ISRS) ou un tricyclique en traitement de première ligne d’une dépression unipolaire ; d’autre part, en adjonction secondaire à un ISRS ou à un tricyclique dans la dépression résistante. les résultats suggèrent une efficacité de l’administration de la T3 dans le traitement de première ligne en association aux tricycliques et dans le traitement de deuxième ligne en association à la fois aux tricycliques ou aux ISRS. L’efficacité n’a pas été démontrée pour l’association de première ligne T3 + ISRS. Le nombre d’études à haut niveau de preuve reste cependant très faible, avec notamment aucune étude en double aveugle étudiant l’adjonction de la T3 aux ISRS en traitement de deuxième ligne.
L’hospitalisation à domicile (HAD) est une alternative à l’hospitalisation à temps complet classique, dans laquelle des soins intensifs sont effectués au domicile du patient. La circulaire DHOS du 4 février 2004 a, plus particulièrement, défini les modalités de l’HAD en psychiatrie : « elle prépare, raccourcit, prend le relais, évite ou remplace l’hospitalisation classique ». Il est important que l’HAD s’intègre dans l’organisation des soins psychiatriques et du secteur déjà existant. Elle renforce la diversité de l’offre de soin, facilite souvent l’accès au suivi psychiatrique et la continuité du parcours de soins. Les structures d’HAD sont disséminées sur l’ensemble du territoire français et leur nombre s’accroît régulièrement sans que puissent se coordonner les différentes équipes de psychiatrie porteuses de ce projet. En effet, à ce jour, il est difficile de trouver des données centralisées concernant les différents services d’HAD psychiatriques en France. Cette communication présente les résultats d’une enquête téléphonique réalisée en 2015 à partir du service d’HAD psychiatrique du centre hospitalier de Montauban (82). Il présente la répartition et la localisation des services d’HAD psychiatrique en France en 2015. Ce recensement a pour but de donner ainsi une vision simple et globale de l’implantation des structures d’hospitalisation à domicile en psychiatrie, avec le projet ultérieur de faciliter les échanges des pratiques dans ce domaine et peut-être de proposer une coordination nationale.
Le nombre de lits consacrés à l’hospitalisation à domicile (HAD) est en constante évolution ces dernières années. L’HAD en psychiatrie a pour mission de préparer, raccourcir, prendre le relais, éviter ou remplacer l’hospitalisation classique. Il n’existe, à notre connaissance, pas de données centralisées concernant les différents services d’HAD psychiatrique en France. Notre communication présente les résultats d’une enquête téléphonique, réalisée à partir du service d’HAD psychiatrique du centre hospitalier de Montauban (82). Elle décrit les principaux indicateurs de fonctionnement des différents HAD psychiatriques, contactées, présentes sur le territoire national en 2015. Les indicateurs étudiés sont : l’année de création de la structure, le nombre de place d’hospitalisation, la durée moyenne de séjour, les pathologies principales, la file active moyenne, les critères d’exclusion, la procédure d’activation, la composition des équipes, la couverture horaire et le rayon d’action géographique. Les résultats sont analysés à la recherche de facteurs d’homogénéité ou de disparité.
The pore structure of vapour deposited ASW is poorly understood, despite its importance to fundamental processes such as grain chemistry, cooling of star forming regions, and planet formation. We studied structural changes of vapour deposited D2O on intra-molecular to 30 nm length scales at temperatures ranging from 18 to 180 K and observed enhanced mobility from 100 to 150 K. An Arrhenius type model describes the loss of surface area and porosity with a common set of kinetic parameters. The low activation energy (428 K) is commensurate with van der Waals forces between nm-scale substructures in the ice. Our findings imply that water porosity will always change with time, even at low temperatures.
Research on Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) has led to the development of several models, languages, and technologies for programming not only agents, but also their interaction, the application environment where they are situated, as well as the organization in which they participate. Research on those topics moved from agent-oriented programming towards multi-agent-oriented programming (MAOP). A MAS program is then designed and developed using a structured set of concepts and associated first-class design and programming abstractions that go beyond the concepts normally associated with agents. They include those related to environment, interaction, and organization. JaCaMo is a platform for MAOP built on top of three seamlessly integrated dimensions (i.e. structured sets of concepts and associated execution platforms): for programming belief desire intention (BDI) agents, their artefact-based environments, and their normative organizations. The key purpose of our work on JaCaMo is to support programmers in exploring the synergy between these dimensions, providing a comprehensive programming model, as well as a corresponding platform for developing and running MAS. This paper provides a practical overview of MAOP using JaCaMo. We show how emphasizing one particular dimension leads to different solutions to the same problem, and discuss the issues of each of those solutions.
Subglacial hydrology plays a key role in many glaciological processes, including ice dynamics via the modulation of basal sliding. Owing to the lack of an overarching theory, however, a variety of model approximations exist to represent the subglacial drainage system. The Subglacial Hydrology Model Intercomparison Project (SHMIP) provides a set of synthetic experiments to compare existing and future models. We present the results from 13 participating models with a focus on effective pressure and discharge. For many applications (e.g. steady states and annual variations, low input scenarios) a simple model, such as an inefficient-system-only model, a flowline or lumped model, or a porous-layer model provides results comparable to those of more complex models. However, when studying short term (e.g. diurnal) variations of the water pressure, the use of a two-dimensional model incorporating physical representations of both efficient and inefficient drainage systems yields results that are significantly different from those of simpler models and should be preferentially applied. The results also emphasise the role of water storage in the response of water pressure to transient recharge. Finally, we find that the localisation of moulins has a limited impact except in regions of sparse moulin density.
The structural integrity of the anterior cingulum has been repeatedly observed to be abnormal in patients with schizophrenia. More recently, aberrant myelination of frontal fasciculi, especially, cingulum has been proposed to underlie delayed corollary discharges that can affect sense of agency and contribute to delusions of control (Schneiderian delusions). Using the magnetization transfer phenomenon at an ultra-high field 7T MRI, we investigated the putative myelin content of cingulum bundle in patients with schizophrenia.
Seventeen clinically stable patients with schizophrenia and 20 controls were recruited for this 7T MRI study. We used a region-of-interest method and extracted magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) from left and right dorsal cingulum bundles and estimated patients v. controls differences. We also related the cingulum MTR values to the severity of Schneiderian delusions.
Patients had a significant reduction in the MTR, indicating reduced myelin content, in the cingulum bundle (right cingulum Hedges’ g = 0.91; left cingulum g = 0.03). The reduced MTR of left cingulum was associated with higher severity of Schneiderian delusions (τ = −0.45, p = 0.026) but no such relationship was seen for the right cingulum MTR (τ = −0.136, p = 0.50) among patients. The association between the left cingulum MTR and Schneiderian delusions was not explained by the presence of other delusions, hallucinations, disorganization or negative symptoms.
Dysmyelination of the cingulum bundle is seen in a subgroup of patients with schizophrenia and may be involved in the mechanism of Schneiderian delusions.
Childhood adversity is associated with cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. However, findings to date are inconsistent and little is known about the relationship between social cognition and childhood trauma. We investigated the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect and cognitive function in patients with a first-episode of schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder (n = 56) and matched healthy controls (n = 52). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study assessing this relationship in patients and controls exposed to similarly high levels of trauma.
Pearson correlational coefficients were used to assess correlations between Childhood Trauma Questionnaire abuse and neglect scores and cognition. For the MCCB domains displaying significant (p < 0.05) correlations, within group hierarchical linear regression, was done to assess whether abuse and neglect were significant predictors of cognition after controlling for the effect of education.
Patients and controls reported similarly high levels of abuse and neglect. Cognitive performance was poorer for patients compared with controls for all cognitive domains except working memory and social cognition. After controlling for education, exposure to childhood neglect remained a significant predictor of impairment in social cognition in both patients and controls. Neglect was also a significant predictor of poorer verbal learning in patients and of attention/vigilance in controls. However, childhood abuse did not significantly predict cognitive impairments in either patients or controls.
These findings are cross sectional and do not infer causality. Nonetheless, they indicate that associations between one type of childhood adversity (i.e. neglect) and social cognition are present and are not illness-specific.
Sediments deposited from the Permian–Triassic boundary (~252 Ma) until the end-Smithian (Early Triassic; c. 250.7 Ma) in the Sonoma Foreland Basin show marked thickness variations between its southern (up to c. 250 m thick) and northern (up to c. 550 m thick) parts. This basin formed as a flexural response to the emplacement of the Golconda Allochthon during the Sonoma orogeny. Using a high-resolution backstripping approach, a numerical model and sediment thickness to obtain a quantitative subsidence analysis, we discuss the controlling factor(s) responsible for spatial variations in thickness. We show that sedimentary overload is not sufficient to explain the significant discrepancy observed in the sedimentary record of the basin. We argue that the inherited rheological properties of the basement terranes and spatial heterogeneity of the allochthon are of paramount importance in controlling the subsidence and thickness spatial distribution across the Sonoma Foreland Basin.
This study aimed to assess the long-term outcome of functional endoscopic sinus surgery for Samter's triad patients using an objective visual analogue scale and nasal endoscopy.
Using a retrospective database, 33 Samter's triad patients who underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery were evaluated pre- and post-operatively between 1987 and 2007 in Hospital of La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland.
A total of 33 patients participated in the study, and the mean follow-up period was 11.6 years (range 1.2–20 years). Patients were divided into two groups based on visual analogue scale scores of the five parameters with the greatest difference in intensity of symptoms between the beginning and end of follow up. Group 1 included patients with a mean visual analogue scale score of 6 and below at the end of follow up and group 2 included patients with a mean visual analogue scale score of more than 6. The only statistically significant difference noted between the two groups was the endonasal findings: stage III–IV polyposis was present in 1 out of 24 patients (4 per cent) in group 1 and in 5 out of 9 patients (56 per cent) in group 2.
The results of our study indicate that functional endoscopic sinus surgery helps stabilise disease progression. Stage III–IV polyposis had a significant adverse effect on long-term outcome.
Wheat bran extract (WBE) is a food-grade soluble fibre preparation that is highly enriched in arabinoxylan–oligosaccharides. In this placebo-controlled cross-over human intervention trial, tolerance to WBE as well as the effects of WBE on faecal parameters, including faecal output and bowel habits, were studied. After a 2-week run-in period, twenty healthy volunteers consumed WBE (15 g/d in the first week, 30 g/d in the second week), oligofructose (15 g/d in the first week, 30 g/d in the second week) and placebo (for 2 weeks) in a random order, with 2-week washout periods between each treatment period. Subjects collected a 72 h stool sample for analysis of faecal output, stool pH and stool moisture concentration. Additionally, the volunteers completed questionnaires scoring occurrence frequency and distress severity of eighteen gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. An overall GI symptom measure was calculated to analyse the overall effect of WBE and oligofructose on GI symptoms. Intake of both 30 g/d WBE and 30 g/d oligofructose lowered stool pH, indicative of increased colonic fermentation, and increased stool moisture concentration as compared with placebo intake. Intake of 30 g/d oligofructose increased the overall GI symptom measure by 1·9-fold as compared with placebo intake. Intake of WBE at doses up to 30 g/d did not affect the overall GI symptom measure. WBE exerts beneficial effects on stool characteristics and is well tolerated at up to 30 g/d. Oligofructose exerts comparable beneficial effects on stool characteristics. However, intake of 30 g/d oligofructose appears to cause GI discomfort to some extent.
In Timpoweap Canyon near Hurricane (Utah, USA), spectacular outcrop conditions of Early Triassic rocks document the geometric relationships between a massive Smithian fenestral-microbial unit and underlying, lateral and overlying sedimentary units. This allows us to reconstruct the evolution of depositional environments and high-frequency relative sea-level fluctuations in the studied area. Depositional environments evolved from a coastal plain with continental deposits to peritidal settings with fenestral-microbial limestones, which are overlain by intertidal to shallow subtidal marine bioclastic limestones. This transgressive trend of a large-scale depositional sequence marks a long-term sea-level rise that is identified worldwide after the Permian–Triassic boundary. The fenestral-microbial sediments were deposited at the transition between continental settings (with terrigenous deposits) and shallow subtidal marine environments (with bioturbated and bioclastic limestones). Such a lateral zonation questions the interpretation of microbial deposits as anachronistic and disaster facies in the western USA basin. The depositional setting may have triggered the distribution of microbial deposits and contemporaneous marine biota. The fenestral-microbial unit is truncated by an erosional surface reflecting a drop in relative sea level at the scale of a medium depositional sequence. The local inherited topography allowed the recording of small-scale sequences characterized by clinoforms and short-distance lateral facies changes. Stratal stacking pattern and surface geometries allow the reconstruction of relative sea-level fluctuations and tracking of shoreline migrations. The stacking pattern of these small-scale sequences and the amplitude of corresponding high-frequency sea-level fluctuations are consistent with climatic control. Large- and medium-scale sequences suggest a regional tectonic control.
Here we present the installation and successful commissioning of an L'-band Annular Groove Phase Mask (AGPM) coronagraph on VLT/NACO. The AGPM is a vector vortex coronagraph made from diamond subwavelength gratings tuned to the L' band. The vector vortex coronagraph enables high contrast imaging at very small inner working angle (here 0″.09, the diffraction limit of the VLT at L'), potentially being the key to a new parameter space. During technical and science verification runs, we discovered a late-type companion at two beamwidths from an F0V star (Mawet et al. 2013), and imaged the inner regions of β Pictoris down to the previously unexplored projected radius of 1.75 AU. The circumstellar disk was also resolved from ≃ 1″ to 5″ (see J. Milli et al., these proceedings). These results showcase the potential of the NACO L-band AGPM over a wide range of spatial scales.
We present a neonate with an antenatal diagnosis of Scimitar syndrome and aortic arch hypoplasia. After delivery, computerised tomography scan additionally revealed an anomalous origin of the circumflex coronary artery from the main pulmonary artery. The management of this rare combination is discussed.
In the past few years, tremendous progress has been made on the utilization, fabrication and understanding of these devices that can focus energy from the far-field onto nanoscale regions and, conversely, enhance the radiation from subwavelength sources into the far-field. While the development of reliable and flexible nanofabrication techniques has been essential for this progress, it has also often been guided by extensive modeling based on computational electrodynamics.
The objective of this chapter is to describe the requirements for accurate electrodynamic modeling of optical antennas, to draw attention to specific pitfalls that can occur in that endeavor and to illustrate some recent modeling results. This chapter is organized as follows: after a brief introduction that describes the challenges associated with the electromagnetic modeling of optical antennas, we review in Sec. 10.2 some of the popular methods used for the electromagnetic simulation of plasmonic antennas, and emphasize in Sec. 10.3 the importance of assessing the convergence of a method and the accuracy of the results it produces. Section 10.4 illustrates the modeling of realistic optical antennas and the utilization of reciprocity to further check the accuracy of numerical results. Section 10.5 provides some typical results on the interaction between an optical antenna and its environment. The chapter concludes with some perspectives on what will be the next challenge in the electromagnetic simulation of plasmonic antennas.
From a computational electromagnetic point of view, the study of optical antennas requires the solving of Maxwell equations for the somewhat complex geometry of the antenna.