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Fluid motion has two well-known fundamental processes: the vector transverse process characterized by vorticity, and the scalar longitudinal process consisting of a sound mode and an entropy mode, characterized by dilatation and thermodynamic variables. The existing theories for the sound mode involve the multi-variable issue and its associated difficulty of source identification. In this paper, we define the source of sound inside the fluid by the objective causality inherent in dynamic equations relevant to a longitudinal process, which naturally favours the material time-rate operator
rather than the local time-rate operator
, and describes the sound mode by inhomogeneous advective wave equations. The sources of sound physical production inside the fluid are then examined at two levels. For the conventional formulation in terms of thermodynamic variables at the first level, we show that the universal kinematic source can be condensed to a scalar invariant of the surface deformation tensor. Further, in the formulation in terms of dilatation at the second level, we find that the sound mode in viscous and heat-conducting flow has sources from rich nonlinear couplings of vorticity, entropy and surface deformation, which cannot be disclosed at the first level. Preliminary numerical demonstration of the theoretical findings is made for two typical compressible flows, i.e. the interaction of two corotating Gaussian vortices and the unsteady type IV shock/shock interaction. The results obtained in this study provide a new theoretical basis for, and physical insight into, understanding various nonlinear longitudinal processes and the interactions therein.
The interaction of the Palaeo-Pacific and Palaeo-Asian Oceans is an enigmatic issue as their temporal and spatial features are controversial. To address this issue, we present a systematic study of large volumes of early Permian volcanic rocks and intrusions developed in the East Tianshan. The represented samples of basaltic andesites and rhyolites yield zircon crystallization ages of 285.1 ± 5.9 Ma and 275.3 ± 1.8 Ma, respectively. The basalts have normal mid-ocean ridge basalt (N-MORB) and arc-related geochemical signatures with high TiO2 contents, negative Rb, Th, U, Nb and Ta anomalies and positive Eu anomalies. Basaltic andesites and andesites have arc-related geochemical characteristics with moderate TiO2 contents and relatively negative Nb, Ta and Ti anomalies, together with slightly negative to positive Eu anomalies. The rhyolites show an affinity with A2-type granite with high SiO2, K2O + Na2O, Fe/Mg, Ga, Zr, Nb, Y, HFSE, REE and Y/Nb levels (>1.2). These geochemical data suggest that the rocks formed in a supra-subduction zone. The presence of high ϵNd(t) values of +4.6 to +8.2 and low (87Sr/86Sr)i (0.70342–0.70591) values indicates that the volcanic rocks originated from a depleted mantle. We propose that oblique subduction with slabs breaking off gave rise to transtension and to the emplacement of large volumes of mantle-derived melts in the early Permian in the East Tianshan, serving as an important record of the subduction zone of the Palaeo-Pacific Ocean.
Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA), the cryogenic infrared space telescope recently pre-selected for a ‘Phase A’ concept study as one of the three remaining candidates for European Space Agency (ESA's) fifth medium class (M5) mission, is foreseen to include a far-infrared polarimetric imager [SPICA-POL, now called B-fields with BOlometers and Polarizers (B-BOP)], which would offer a unique opportunity to resolve major issues in our understanding of the nearby, cold magnetised Universe. This paper presents an overview of the main science drivers for B-BOP, including high dynamic range polarimetric imaging of the cold interstellar medium (ISM) in both our Milky Way and nearby galaxies. Thanks to a cooled telescope, B-BOP will deliver wide-field 100–350
m images of linearly polarised dust emission in Stokes Q and U with a resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and both intensity and spatial dynamic ranges comparable to those achieved by Herschel images of the cold ISM in total intensity (Stokes I). The B-BOP 200
m images will also have a factor
30 higher resolution than Planck polarisation data. This will make B-BOP a unique tool for characterising the statistical properties of the magnetised ISM and probing the role of magnetic fields in the formation and evolution of the interstellar web of dusty molecular filaments giving birth to most stars in our Galaxy. B-BOP will also be a powerful instrument for studying the magnetism of nearby galaxies and testing Galactic dynamo models, constraining the physics of dust grain alignment, informing the problem of the interaction of cosmic rays with molecular clouds, tracing magnetic fields in the inner layers of protoplanetary disks, and monitoring accretion bursts in embedded protostars.
Pathogenesis of pregnancy toxemia (PT) is believed to be associated with the disruption of lipid metabolism. The present study aimed to explore the underlying mechanisms of lipid metabolism disorder in the livers of ewes with PT. In total, 10 pregnant ewes were fed normally (control group) whereas another 10 were subjected to 70% level feed restriction for 15 days to establish a pathological model of PT. Results showed that, as compared with the controls, the levels of blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) and cholesterol were greater (P<0.05) and blood glucose level was lower (P<0.05) in PT ewes. The contents of NEFAs, BHBA, cholesterol and triglyceride were higher (P<0.05) and glycerol content was lower (P<0.05) in hepatic tissues of PT ewes than those of the controls. For ewes with PT, excessive fat vacuoles were observed in liver sections stained with hematoxylin–eosin; furthermore, inner structures of hepatocytes including nuclei, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum were damaged seriously according to the results of transmission electron microscope. Real-time PCR data showed that compared with the controls, the expression of hepatic genes involved in fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and triglyceride synthesis (TGS) was enhanced (P<0.05) whereas that related to acetyl-CoA metabolism (ACM) was repressed (P<0.05) in PT ewes. Generally, our results showed that negative energy balance altered the expression of genes involved in FAO, ACM and TGS, further caused lipid metabolism disorder in livers, resulting in PT of ewes. Our findings may provide the molecular basis for novel therapeutic strategies against this systemic metabolic disease in sheep.
An excellent laboratory for studying large scale magnetic fields is the grand design face-on spiral galaxy M51. Due to wavelength-dependent Faraday depolarization, linearly polarized synchrotron emission at different radio frequencies gives a picture of the galaxy at different depths: Observations at L-band (1 – 2 GHz) probe the halo region while at C- and X-band (4 – 8 GHz) the linearly polarized emission probe the disk region of M51. We present new observations of M51 using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) at S-band (2 – 4 GHz), where previously no polarization observations existed, to shed new light on the transition region between the disk and the halo. We discuss a model of the depolarization of synchrotron radiation in a multilayer magneto-ionic medium and compare the model predictions to the multi-frequency polarization data of M51 between 1 – 8 GHz. The new S-band data are essential to distinguish between different models. Our study shows that the initial model parameters, i.e. the total regular and turbulent magnetic field strengths in the disk and halo of M51, need to be adjusted to successfully fit the models to the data.
In the current intensive production system, ruminants are often fed high-grain (HG) diets. However, this feeding pattern often causes rumen metabolic disorders and may further trigger laminitis, the exact mechanism is not clear. This study investigated the effect of HG diet feeding on fermentative and microbial changes in the rumen and on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the lamellar tissue. In all, 12 male goats were fed a hay diet (0% grain; n=6) or an HG diet (56.5% grain; n=6). On day 50 of treatment, samples of blood, rumen content, and lamellar tissue of hooves of goats were collected. The data showed that compared with the hay group, HG-fed goats had lower (P<0.05) rumen pH but higher (P<0.05) total volatile fatty acids and lactate in the rumen and higher (P<0.05) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels in the rumen and blood. HG diet feeding altered the composition of rumen bacterial community, and correspondingly, the results suggested that their functions in the HG group were also altered. HG diet feeding increased (P<0.05) the expression of interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-α and MMP-2 mRNA in the lamellar tissues compared with the hay group. Correlation analysis indicated that the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines were positively correlated with MMP-2 expression in lamellar tissues. Overall, these results revealed that HG feeding altered the patterns of rumen fermentation and the composition and functions of rumen bacterial community, and lead to higher levels of LPS in the peripheral blood, and further activated the inflammatory response in lamellar tissues, which may progress to the level of laminar damage.
The triplite LiFeSO4F displays both the highest potential ever reported for an Fe-based compound, as well as a comparable specific energy with that of popular LiFePO4. The synthesis is still a challenge because the present approaches are connected with long time, special equipments or organic reagents, etc. In this work, the triplite LiFeSO4F powder was synthesized through an ambient two-step solid-state route. The reaction process and phase purity were analyzed, coupled with structure refinement and electrochemical test.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
Linear and nonlinear transient growths of perturbations on a vortex ring up to Reynolds number (
are studied. For short time intervals, perturbations around the ring axis undergo the strongest linear transient growth and lead to secondary structures in the form of ringlets, owing to the Orr mechanism and an inviscid vorticity-amplification mechanism: in contrast to the well-reported instabilities and lobe structures along the vortex ring core. These secondary ringlet structures induce a tertiary group of ringlets through similar transient perturbation growth. This cascade of ringlets lead to the breakup of the main ring even before activation of the vortex-core instabilities. Such a cascade scenario is also observed in the development of a vortex ring perturbed by random disturbance in the axis region. These new modes and mechanisms for the generation and breakup of vortex ring structures bring insights into the dynamics and control of vortex ring flows.
The PULSE@Parkes project has been designed to monitor the rotation of radio pulsars over time spans of days to years. The observations are obtained using the Parkes 64-m and 12-m radio telescopes by Australian and international high school students. These students learn the basis of radio astronomy and undertake small projects with their observations. The data are fully calibrated and obtained with the state-of-the-art pulsar hardware available at Parkes. The final data sets are archived and are currently being used to carry out studies of 1) pulsar glitches, 2) timing noise, 3) pulse profile stability over long time scales and 4) the extreme nulling phenomenon. The data are also included in other projects such as gamma-ray observatory support and for the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array project. In this paper we describe the current status of the project and present the first scientific results from the Parkes 12-m radio telescope. We emphasise that this project offers a straightforward means to enthuse high school students and the general public about radio astronomy while obtaining scientifically valuable data sets.
The tectonic history and time of closure of the Palaeo-Asian ocean of the Altaids are issues of lively current debate. To address these issues, this paper presents detailed geological, petrological and geochemical data of the Liuyuan complex (LC) in the Beishan region in NW China, located in the southernmost Altaids, in order to constrain its age, origin and tectonic setting. The LC mainly comprises massive basalts, pillow basalts, basaltic breccias, gabbros and ultramafic rocks together with cherts and tuffs. Most prominent are gabbros and large volumes of basaltic lavas. These mafic rocks have high TiO2 contents, flat rare earth element (REE) patterns and show high-field-strength elements (HFSEs) similar to those of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB). The mafic rocks exhibit positive εNd(t) (6.6–9.0) values, representing magmas derived from the mantle. But these basic rocks are also enriched in Th relative to REEs, and are systematically depleted in Nb–Ta–(Ti) relative to REEs. There is also a large range in initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.7037–0.7093). All these variables indicate that mantle-derived magma was contaminated by fluids and/or melts from a subducting lithospheric slab, and formed in a supra-subduction zone (SSZ) setting. A gabbro intruded in the complex was dated by LA-ICP-MS on 20 zircons that yielded a 206Pb–238U weighted average age of 286 ± 2 Ma. Considering the fact that all these basalts are imbricated against Permian tuffaceous sediments and limestone, we propose that the LC formed as an ophiolite in a fore-arc in Carboniferous–Permian time. This indicates that the Palaeo-Asian ocean still existed at 286 ± 2 Ma in early Permian time, and thus the time of closure of the Palaeo-Asian ocean was in or after the late Permian.
Exposure of fetuses to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as the estrogenic drug diethylstilbestrol (DES), disrupts development of the reproductive system and affects other aspects of adult phenotype including diseases, consistent with the developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis. To determine whether diet could influence the effects of DES, we compared mice fed a commonly used combination of soy-based Purina 5008 (breeding and lactation) and 5001 (post-weaning) with mice fed soy-based Purina 5002 throughout life. We exposed fetal CD-1 mice (F1) in utero on different feeds to a 0 (controls), low (0.1 μg/kg/day) or high (50 μg/kg/day) dose of DES via feeding the dam (F0) on gestation days 11–17. Compared to 5008, 5002 feed significantly increased serum estradiol in control fetuses. On 5008 (but not 5002) feed, DES significantly increased fetal serum estradiol at a low dose and reduced it at a high dose. Diet influenced the effects of in utero DES on F1 female onset of puberty and the uterine response to estradiol (an inverted-U dose–response relationship seen for DES on uterine weight with 5008/5001 feed was not observed with 5002). Both low- and high-dose DES reduced daily sperm production (DSP) in adult F1 males on 5008/5001 feed, whereas males fed 5002 showed no DES-induced reduction in DSP. Thus, we observed a number of low-dose effects of in utero DES exposure on Purina 5008/5001 feed that were not observed using Purina 5002, a feed commonly used in industry-funded toxicological studies conducted for regulatory purposes.
In this paper the remote surface roughness effects on channel electron
density of nano MOSFET is discussed by solving the coupled Schrödinger
equation and Poisson equation. The results demonstrate that the remote
surface roughness could largely affect the density of inversion channel
electron, and the change of electron density by this effect has been found
to have approximately linear relationship to the remote surface roughness.
This implies that the mobility degradation effect by remote surface
roughness scattering can be partially erased for the on-state current.
Introduction: Recent data suggest that escitalopram may be more effective in severe depression than other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.
Methods: Individual patient data from four randomized, double-blind comparative trials of escitalopram versus a serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) (two trials with duloxetine and two with venlafaxine extended release) in outpatients (18–85 years of age) with moderate-to-severe major depressive disorder were pooled. The primary efficacy parameter in all four trials was mean change in the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score.
Results: Significantly fewer escitalopram (82/524) than SNRI (114/527) patients prematurely withdrew from treatment due to all causes (15.6% vs. 21.6%, Fisher Exact: P=.014) and adverse events (5.3% vs. 12.0%, Fisher Exact: P <.0001). Mean reduction in MADRS score from baseline to Week 8 was significantly greater for the escitalopram group versus the SNRI group using the last observation carried forward (LOCF) approach [mean treatment difference at Week 8 of 1.7 points (P <.01)]. Similar results were observed in the severely depressed (baseline MADRS score ≥30) patient subset (mean treatment difference at Week 8 of 2.9 points [P <.001, LOCF]). Observed cases analyses yielded no significant differences in efficacy parameters.
Conclusion: This pooled analysis indicates that escitalopram is at least as effective as the SNRIs (venlafaxine XR and duloxetine), even in severe depression, and escitalopram treatment was better tolerated.
We report on a method based on cross-sectional scanning photoelectron microscopy and spectroscopy (XSPEM/S) for studying electronic structure of III-nitride surfaces and interfaces on a submicrometer scale. Cross-sectional III-nitride surfaces prepared by in situ cleavage were investigated to eliminate the polarization effects associated with the interface charges/dipoles normal to the cleaved surface. In contrast to the as-grown polar surfaces which show strong surface band bending, the cleaved nonpolar surfaces have been found to be under the flat-band conditions. Therefore, both doping and compositional junctions can be directly visualized at the cleaved nonpolar surfaces. Additionally, we show that the “intrinsic” valence band offsets at the cleaved III-nitride heterojunctions can be unambiguously determined.
Surface biofunctionalization of group-III nitride semiconductors has recently attracted much interest due to their biocompatibility, nontoxicity, and long-term chemical stability under demanding physiochemical conditions for chemical and biological sensing. Among III-nitrides, aluminum nitride (AlN) and aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) are particularly important because they are often used as the sensing surfaces for sensors based on field-effect transistor or surface acoustic wave sensor structures. Patterned self-assembled monolayer (SAM) templates are composed of two types of organosilane molecules terminated with different functional groups (amino and methyl), which were fabricated on AlN/sapphire substrates by combining photolithography, lift-off process, and self-assembly technique. Clear imaging contrast of SAM micropatterns can be observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) operating at a low accelerating voltage in the range of 0.5–1.5 kV. In this work, the formation of green fluorescent protein (GFP) antibody microarrays was demonstrated by the specific protein binding of enhanced GFP (EGFP) labeling. The observed strong fluorescent signal from antibody functionalized regions on the SAM-patterned AlN surface indicates the retained biological activity of specific molecular recognition resulting from the antibody–EGFP interaction. The results reported here show that micropatterning of organosilane SAMs by the combination of photolithographic process and lift-off technique is a practical approach for the fabrication of reaction regions on AlN-based bioanalytical microdevices.
Based on the first-principles simulations, the oxygen vacancies in the ultrathin HfO2 layer as the gate dielectric in a metal-oxide-semiconductor structure is found to result in the conduction
band offset alignment around the vacancy. Thus an increase in the gate
leakage current tunneling current comes when the oxygen vacancies appear in the HfO2 layer wherever the oxygen vacancies locate. The relative increase in the tunneling current caused by the oxygen vacancies slightly change with the increasing oxide thickness for a low oxide electric field.
Long-term mortality and the risk factors for premature death among
patients with schizophrenia living in rural communities are unknown.
To explore the 10-year mortality and its risk factors among patients with
We used data from a 10-year prospective follow-up study (1994–2004) of
mortality among people with schizophrenia, and death registration data
for Xinjin County, Chengdu, China.
The mortality rate was 2228 per 100 000 person-years during follow-up.
Both all-cause mortality and suicide rates were significantly greater in
male than in female patients. Age at illness onset (>45 years),
duration of illness (⩾10 years), age greater than 50 years, physical
illness, inability to work, male gender, and never having received
treatment were identified as independent predictors of increased
Higher mortality rates in male patients may contribute to the higher
prevalence of schizophrenia in women compared with men in China. The
findings of risk factors for mortality should be taken into account when
developing interventions to improve outcomes among people with
Near infrared absorption (NIR) spectra of natural morphologically cubic polycrystalline diamonds (cuboid) were obtained at room temperature, and the stretching plus bending combination band of molecular water was observed. The spectrum consisted of the main band at 5180 cm-1 due to liquid water and a shoulder at 5000 cm-1. The 5000 cm-1 band suggests the presence of a phase with stronger hydrogen bonding in inclusions in the diamond. This shoulder absorption decreased on heating to 120°C. The combination band of H2O at high pressure and temperature was measured using a resistively heated diamond cell and the pressure dependence of the peak position was obtained. Comparison with the present experimental results indicates that the spectral changes induced by heating of the cuboid corresponded to melting of a high-pressure form of ice, and the shoulder absorption at 5000 cm-1 arises from ice VI at 1.9 GPa. On the other hand, the liquid water, a main component of the fluid inclusions in the cuboid, was not under high pressure judging from the frequency of the combination band. This contrast might relate to the texture of the cuboid diamond. The spectral observation enables us to estimate the residual pressure of mantle fluid encapsulated in these diamonds. The diamond-cell data also provide high-P-T NIR fingerprint spectra that could be useful for identifying H2O phases and confining pressures in other samples.