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The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of COVID-19 in Nigeria with a view of generating evidence to enhance planning and response strategies. A national surveillance dataset between 27 February and 6 June 2020 was retrospectively analysed, with confirmatory testing for COVID-19 done by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The primary outcomes were cumulative incidence (CI) and case fatality (CF). A total of 40 926 persons (67% of total 60 839) had complete records of RT-PCR test across 35 states and the Federal Capital Territory, 12 289 (30.0%) of whom were confirmed COVID-19 cases. Of those confirmed cases, 3467 (28.2%) had complete records of clinical outcome (alive or dead), 342 (9.9%) of which died. The overall CI and CF were 5.6 per 100 000 population and 2.8%, respectively. The highest proportion of COVID-19 cases and deaths were recorded in persons aged 31–40 years (25.5%) and 61–70 years (26.6%), respectively; and males accounted for a higher proportion of confirmed cases (65.8%) and deaths (79.0%). Sixty-six per cent of confirmed COVID-19 cases were asymptomatic at diagnosis. In conclusion, this paper has provided an insight into the early epidemiology of COVID-19 in Nigeria, which could be useful for contextualising public health planning.
The poultry industry is mainly scared by affected by infections due to microorganisms which reduce the growth rate and cause economic losses. Currently, vaccines and antibiotics are utilised to combat these infectious microorganisms, but irresponsible use of antibiotics may pose health risks to consumers, and there is a need for drug-free alternatives. Nanotechnology could reduce such risks and can improve the wholesomeness of poultry meat. This review discusses the current status of nanotechnology as it relates to improving poultry health by using various nano-particles (NPs). Silver-NPs at a dose rate of 900 ppm have been used in poultry to improve their growth performance in terms of body weight, feed intake and feed conversion ratio. NPs are thought to boost immunity in birds against numerous diseases. Gold-NPs improved the growth performance of poultry birds as well as detecting avian influenza virus with a detection limit of 2.2 pg/ml. Similarly, Copper-loaded chitosan-NPs supplementation at dose rate of 100 mg/kg feed improved growth performance, immunity, protein synthesis and caecal microbiota in broilers. Zinc oxide-NPs improved growth performance and showed anti-oxidative properties in broilers at the dose rate of 20 mg/kg. While, montmorillonite nano-composites at a level of 3 g/kg feed decreased the toxicity of aflatoxins in poultry birds. In conclusion, nanotechnology has the potential to reduce microbial load without resulting drug residues in poultry products, thus improving performance and immune status of poultry birds.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: National concerns about IRB-related research delays have led to re-assessment of IRB review processes at institutional levels. We sought to address whether a dedicated IRB Liaison Service at the Irving Institute’s central location could provide additional useful staff support to the investigator community for interactions with the IRB at various levels of protocol submission. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We evaluated the results of a user satisfaction survey and performed a focused in-depth analysis of Liaison Service impact. An online tracking and satisfaction survey was implemented for researchers to complete following each consultation. The goal was to gauge the uses, user types and usefulness of the Service, and to follow-up with researchers who might have additional questions. Data was gathered about users of the Service and their affiliations, and the topics and questions that were discussed. A terse summary was drafted to categorize each consultation that was conducted during office hour sessions. Additionally, surveys were emailed to researchers to gauge their experience with the Service and their overall satisfaction. Users completed the survey either in person at the end of the consultation, or by email request sent immediately following each in-person consultation. The impact of the IRB Liaison Service on IRB protocol approval times was analyzed for a random sub-sample of protocols for which consultations were provided. Consultations for studies with an associated IRB protocol number (i.e., at least initially submitted) from May 2015-June 2017 had been assigned a number in an Excel file. Using a randomization formula, a subset of 90 protocols was identified for further analysis. Protocols that did not result in an IRB submission and duplicate entries were removed. The final dataset consisted of 67 protocols. Those protocols were assessed by type of review process (expedited versus full board review), by status (new submission, first return, second return, etc.), and by which of the seven IRB committees completed the review. Consultations for each protocol included in this subset were reviewed using the notes about that consultation. IRB records in Columbia’s online research oversight system, Rascal, were also reviewed to assess the timing of and issues raised in subsequent IRB review. Factors examined included whether the protocol was approved at next submission and if not, whether questions raised in subsequent IRB returns were related to the topics discussed in the consultation. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Since its inception in January 2015 through June 2017 (2.5 years), a total of 501 in-person consultations have been performed, usually 25-30 per month. Users were primarily study coordinators and investigators. Most requests concerned new protocol development, policy questions or assistance in addressing IRB comments from submitted protocols. Survey response rate was 43%. Results of 215 competed satisfaction surveys were 100% positive. Of 67 unique protocols analyzed for outcomes of the consultation, 73% were subsequently approved within 14 days. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Overall, we have found the Liaison Service to be a popular addition to research support, and plan to continue the service. We will continue to evaluate its user satisfaction and usefulness. Additional focus will be placed on whether the Service can improve approval times for human subjects research for protocols using the Liaison Service.
A third of patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) experience treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Relatively few pharmacological agents have established efficacy for TRD. Therefore, the evaluation of novel treatments for TRD is a pressing priority. Statins are pleiotropic agents and preclinical studies as well as preliminary clinical trials have suggested that these drugs may have antidepressant properties.
To report on a protocol for a 12-week, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of add-on treatment with simvastatin for patients meeting DSM-5 criteria for MDD who have failed to respond to at least two adequate trials with approved antidepressants. The trial has been registered with Clinicaltrials.gov in (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03435744).
After screening and randomisation to the two parallel arms of the trial, 75 patients will receive simvastatin and 75 patients will receive placebo as adjuncts to treatment as usual. The primary outcome is change in Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale scores from baseline to week 12 and secondary outcomes include changes in scores on the 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, the Clinical Global Impression scale, the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale and change in body mass index from baseline to week 12. Assessments will take place at screening, baseline, and weeks 2, 4, 8 and 12. Checklists for adverse effects will be undertaken at each visit. Simvastatin (20 mg) will be given once daily. Other secondary outcomes include C-reactive protein and plasma lipids measured at baseline and week 12.
This trial will assess simvastatin's efficacy and tolerability as an add-on treatment option for patients with TRD and provide insights into its putative mechanisms of action.
As the first trial investigating the use of simvastatin as an augmentation strategy in patients with TRD, if the results indicate that adjuvant simvastatin is efficacious in reducing depressive symptoms, it will deliver immediate clinical benefit.
Declaration of interest
I.B.C. and N.H. have given lectures and advice to Eli Lilly, Bristol Myers Squibb, Lundbeck, Astra Zeneca and Janssen pharmaceuticals for which they or their employing institution have been reimbursed. R.R. and M.M.H. have received educational grants and support for academic meetings from Pfizer, Roche, Novartis and Nabiqasim. A.H.Y. has been commissioned to provide lectures and advice to all major pharmaceutical companies with drugs used in affective and related disorders. A.H.Y. has undertaken investigator-initiated studies from Astra Zeneca, Eli Lilly, Lundbeck and Wyeth. None of the companies have a financial interest in this research.
The emergence of microbial challenges in commercial poultry farming causes significant economic losses. Vaccination is effective in preventing diseases of single aetiology while antibiotics have an advantage over vaccination in controlling diseases of multiple aetiologies. As the occurrence of antibiotic resistance is a serious problem, there is increased pressure on producers to reduce antibiotic use in poultry production. Therefore, it is essential to use alternative substances to cope with microbial challenges in commercial poultry farming. This review will focus on the role of β-glucans originating from yeast cell wall (YCW) as a growth promoter and antibiotic alternative. β-glucans have the ability to modulate the intestinal morphology by increasing the number of goblet cells, mucin expression and cells expressing secretory IgA (sIgA) with increased sIgA in the intestinal lumen and decreased bacterial translocation to different organs. β-glucans also increase the gene expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins which maintain the integrity of the intestinal wall in broiler chickens. However, further studies are required to optimise the dosage and source of β-glucans to determine effects on growth performance and mechanisms against enteric pathogens.
Infectious diseases are major constraint that hinders the poultry industry. Among them parasitic diseases are very common and Ascaridia galli is one of the most common parasitic roundworms found in poultry. Haemorrhages, diarrhoea and listlessness are signs of infection. Parasitic infections such as A. galli are treated with chemical anthelmintics (piperazine, albendazole, levamisole, Ivermectin, benzimidazoles and fenbendazole). These synthetic chemicals can promote resistance, so there is need for alternative ways to treat the disease. Medicinal plants have the potential to combat such parasitism and the development of anthelmintic resistance appears to be very slow against such treatment. This review covers the studies related to the screening of plant materials having in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activities against A. galli throughout the world. Medicinal plants showing in vitro anthelmintic activity include Anacardium occidentale, Allium sativum, Tribulus terrestris, Bassia latifolia, Piper betle, Morinda citrifolia L.I, Cassia occidentalis L. and Aloe secundiflora while in vivo studies include the use of Psorelia corylifolia, Piper betle, Pilostigma thonningi, Caesalpinia crista, Ocimum gratissimum and Anacardium occidentale. In conclusion, medicinal plants appear to have good anthelmintic activities in poultry and may substitute conventionally used synthetic drugs, and their use may moderate drug resistance in endemic pathogen populations and drug residues in poultry meat.
Delirium is a neuropsychiatric condition characterized by acute change in cognition and disturbance of consciousness. A similar state during the final days of life is termed “terminal delirium.”
We present three cases with end-stage chronic medical problems without any significant psychiatric history who were admitted to an inpatient psychiatric unit or a locked dementia unit for management of “depression,” “dementia,” or “psychosis.”
Early diagnosis of terminal delirium helps prevent patients, family members, and staff from undergoing severe emotional distress and facilitates appropriate end-of-life care.
Short illumination wavelength allows an extension of the diffraction limit toward nanometer scale; thus, improving spatial resolution in optical systems. Soft X-ray (SXR) radiation, from “water window” spectral range, λ=2.3–4.4 nm wavelength, which is particularly suitable for biological imaging due to natural optical contrast provides better spatial resolution than one obtained with visible light microscopes. The high contrast in the “water window” is obtained because of selective radiation absorption by carbon and water, which are constituents of the biological samples. The development of SXR microscopes permits the visualization of features on the nanometer scale, but often with a tradeoff, which can be seen between the exposure time and the size and complexity of the microscopes. Thus, herein, we present a desk-top system, which overcomes the already mentioned limitations and is capable of resolving 60 nm features with very short exposure time. Even though the system is in its initial stage of development, we present different applications of the system for biology and nanotechnology. Construction of the microscope with recently acquired images of various samples will be presented and discussed. Such a high resolution imaging system represents an interesting solution for biomedical, material science, and nanotechnology applications.
The poultry industry is affected by economically important problems such as Newcastle disease (ND). Newcastle disease virus (NDV) belongs to the Paramyxoviridae family and manifests as different strains; lentogenic, mesogenic and velogenic. ND affects the quality of eggs and impairs growth performance of birds. Various efforts have been made to control economic losses due to this disease, including using live and killed vaccines, which do not confer 100% immunity in all cases. Due to mutations within viral strains, NDV can become resistant and difficult to control, and there is a need to search for alternative measures. Medicinal plants are considered as a complementary means to control this virus, especially in developing countries, because they have been implicated in treatments for a variety of infectious and non-infectious diseases. Alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and tannins found in plants have been regarded as novel antiviral agents. The following paper encompasses the studies related to plants having in vitro antiviral activity against ND such as Momordica balamina, Adansonia digitata, Artemisia annua, Azadirachta indica, Psidium guajava, Moringa oleifera and plants having good in vivo antiviral activity such as Aloe secundiﬂora, Cucumis metuliferus and Anthocleista nobilis as well. It discusses plants with the potential to improve the immunity of infected birds, such as Mangrove halophytes, Nigella sativa, Polysavone, Melissa officinalis, Momordica cochinchinensis, Echinacea purpurea, Withania somnifera and Aspargus Racemosus.
Thermal emission plays a critical role in a wide variety of applications, including adjusting radiative losses in photovoltaics and selective solar absorbers, as well as enhancing the emission of high energy photons for thermophotovoltaics and photon-enhanced thermionic emission. In this work, we consider the benefit to thermal emission associated with replacing conventional mirrors with meta-mirrors following Generalized Snell’s Law. By reflecting light at a different angle than incident, they can couple internally guided thermal radiation modes to the escape cone, ideally starting from any internally-guided angle. We illustrate the concept with two meta-mirror structures: a graded index material and a xylophone structure. Even without optimization, angle-averaged selective thermal emission is significantly enhanced compared to the planar case at selected wavelengths. Furthermore, the central wavelength and bandwidth of the enhancement can be matched with the requirements of each application.
Basic principles and rationale for allogeneic HSCT in inborn errorsof metabolism (IEM)
The IEM are a group of genetic disorders in which a multisystem progressive disorder arises from enzyme deficiency and accumulation of products of metabolism within the cells and tissues. After successful engraftment following HSCT, the donor cells not only reconstitute the lymphohematopoietic system but also, more slowly, replace tissue macrophages such as Kupfer cells in the liver and microglial cells in the CNS of the host. In most IEM, the beneficial effect of HSCT on disease outcome is mediated by a process called cross correction. This was first shown in vitro, over three decades ago, in fibroblast cell cultures of Hurler syndrome (MPSIH) and Hunter syndrome (MPSII) patients (Neufeld, 1983). In HSCT, the enzyme produced and secreted by the engrafted donor cells is taken up by the enzyme-deficient host cells, leading to the correction of the underlying disease phenotype in the patient (Krivit, 1983).
The first allogeneic HSCT for MPSIH was performed in the U.K. in 1981 (Hobbs et al., 1981). To date, over two thousand HSCTs have been carried out for metabolic disorders, mostly in MPSIH patients. Other metabolic disorders treated with HSCT include MPSII, Maroteaux Lamy syndrome (MPSVI), Sly syndrome (MPSVII), α-mannosidosis, and X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD). In a successful allogeneic HSCT in IEM, the enzyme delivered by the donor cells should be adequate to prevent substrate accumulation within a given disease and stop or reverse the disease progression. However, in certain lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) such as San Filippo disease (MPSIII), normalization of enzyme levels is not sufficient to halt the disease progression (Sivakumur & Wraith, 1999). This reflects the complex pathogenesis and the difficulty in treating this group of illnesses. The reason for apparent HSCT failure in some IEMs remains unclear. Another important consideration of HSCT efficacy in these disorders is the selective response in some organs after HSCT (Masterson et al., 1996), particularly if the transplant is performed late after the diagnosis or in the presence of advanced disease.
Infection surveillance definitions for long-term care facilities (ie, the McGeer Criteria) have not been updated since 1991. An expert consensus panel modified these definitions on the basis of a structured review of the literature. Significant changes were made to the criteria defining urinary tract and respiratory tract infections. New definitions were added for norovirus gastroenteritis and Clostridum difficile infections.
This paper presents the formation and the characterization of silicon germanium oxide (SixGeyO1-x-y) infrared sensitive material for uncooled microbolometers. RF magnetron sputtering was used to simultaneously deposit Si and Ge thin films in an Ar/O2 environment at room temperature. The effects of varying Si and O composition on the thin film's electrical properties which include temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) and resistivity were investigated. The highest achieved TCR and the corresponding resistivity at room temperature were -5.41 %/K and 3.16×103 ohm cm using Si0.039Ge0.875O0.086 for films deposited at room temperature.
The influence of the growth temperature on the phase stability and composition of single-phase In1-xGaxN epilayers has been studied. The In1-xGaxN epilayers were grown by high-pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition with nominally composition of x = 0.6 at a reactor pressure of 15 bar at various growth temperatures. The layers were analyzed by x-ray diffraction, optical transmission spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The results showed that a growth temperature of 925°C led to the best single phase InGaN layers with the smoothest surface and smallest grain areas
The optical properties of hexagonal nanohole arrays in gold films are investigated. Nanosphere lithography combined with reactive ion etching has been applied as a low cost method to fabricate nanohole arrays with hexagonal symmetry where the size and spacing of the holes can be independently controlled. In this study, the spacing between the nanoholes is 600 nm with the hole diameter varied between 450 and 250 nm. The transmission spectra of the surface patterns with different film thickness are collected with normally incident light. The color of the reflected light from the nanohole array was found to change from green to red as the diameter of the holes was reduced. One application of these films is to study cell adhesion to small areas with controlled size. We explore the possibility of making isolated cell adhesion dots by chemically modifying the nanohole area. Swiss 3T3 cells were adhered onto the patterned surface and imaged using environmental SEM and fluorescent microscopy.
As U.S. lamb imports increased relative to domestic production, and the relative share of chilled to frozen lamb imports increased, importers of chilled lamb have become less responsive to domestic and import prices, while the direct opposite is the case for frozen lamb imports. From 1990 to 2003, chilled lamb imports from Australia and New Zealand became less and less responsive to U.S. prices, and frozen imports became more responsive. Unconditional own-price elasticities also show that, over time, imports of chilled lamb became less responsive to import prices while frozen imports became more responsive to import prices.
This article reports on the effects of HVPE GaN substrate condition on the performance of 405 nm LEDs grown by MOCVD. Three 1 cm2 HVPE GaN substrates were received from a commercially available source and characterized for the substrate condition. AFM and optical microscope were used to characterize the surface morphology and this was found to vary from a “moonscaped” morphology to a smooth surface. The presence of nanoscale pits and substrate bowing were also found. XRD measurements showed a variation in crystalline quality of the substrates with the FWHM of the (0002) rocking curve varying from 87 arcsec to 192 arcsec with some substrates showing multiple peaks in the rocking curve. Photoluminescence was used to measure the optical quality of the substrates and both band edge luminescence and yellow luminescence were found to vary greatly within one substrate as well as from substrate to substrate. After characterization of each individual substrate a 405 nm LED structure was grown using identical growth conditions on each substrate, in separate growth runs. A GaN template was included in each growth for consistency. The surface morphology and crystalline quality of the device structures were then measured. Following this devices were fabricated and tested for electroluminescence optical output power and current-voltage characteristics. The device characteristics and performance as related to starting substrate quality will be presented with respect to substrate surface morphology and crystalline structure.