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Demonstrating the equivalence of constructs is a key requirement for cross-cultural empirical research. The major purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how to assess measurement and functional equivalence or invariance using the 9-item, 3-factor Love of Money Scale (LOMS, a second-order factor model) and the 4-item, 1-factor Pay Level Satisfaction Scale (PLSS, a first-order factor model) across 29 samples in six continents (N = 5973). In step 1, we tested the configural, metric and scalar invariance of the LOMS and 17 samples achieved measurement invariance. In step 2, we applied the same procedures to the PLSS and nine samples achieved measurement invariance. Five samples (Brazil, China, South Africa, Spain and the USA) passed the measurement invariance criteria for both measures. In step 3, we found that for these two measures, common method variance was non-significant. In step 4, we tested the functional equivalence between the Love of Money Scale and Pay Level Satisfaction Scale. We achieved functional equivalence for these two scales in all five samples. The results of this study suggest the critical importance of evaluating and establishing measurement equivalence in cross-cultural studies. Suggestions for remedying measurement non-equivalence are offered.
ZnO is a promising material for use in solar cell applications which require antireflective coatings and transparent conducting materials in front contacts. Its resistivity can be reduced by appropriate doping with different group III elements, which act as donors, without sacrificing optical transmission. Besides, it constitutes a non-toxic and cheap alternative to ITO (In2O3:SnO2), which is nowadays commonly used as transparent conducting oxide (TCO) in optoelectronic devices. Al(III) is one of the cheapest elements on nature, and has been therefore one of the first candidates to be used as a dopant. However recent studies demonstrate that for similar amounts of dopant the use of Ga largely improves both the optical and electrical properties of the films. The interface between Si (used as substrate) and the corresponding TCO is a critical part of Si-based solar cells, since the conversion efficiency may be profoundly altered by the presence of recombination centers formed at the interface. In this work we present a comparison of Si/ZnO, Si/ZnO:Ga and Si/ZnO:Al interfaces (with [dopant]/[Zn] = 2%) by using HRTEM and associated spectroscopies. Resistivity values of the films are: ρ(ZnO) = 4.4 × 10-2 Ω × cm; ρ(Ga:ZnO) = 6.3 × 10-4 Ω × cm; ρ(Al:ZnO) = 2.9 × 10-3 Ω × cm. and the films optical transmitance is larger than 80% along the visible spectrum.
Following ICNIRP Guidelines of 1998, European Parliament in 2004 has stated the reference levels for workers exposure to electromagnetic fields. In low frequency regime, due to the nature of the basic mechanism of short term interaction, the exposure limits are based on the values of induced eddy currents inside human body, thus electromagnetic simulation is an important tool for the assessment of electromagnetic field exposure. This paper presents a method for computing eddy currents inside human body and applies the method to the evaluation of eddy currents induced by a resistance spot welding system. A comparison between results obtained with two different models of human body and with different discretization levels is performed and results are discussed.
In this paper, we describe the experimental validation of the technique of correction of wavefront aberration in the middle of the laser amplifying chain. This technique allows the correction of the aberrations from the first part of the laser system, and the pre-compensation of the aberrations built in the second part. This approach will allow an effective aberration management in the laser chain, to protect the optical surfaces and optimize performances, and is the only possible approach for multi-petawatt laser system from the technical and economical point of view. This approach is now possible after the introduction of new deformable mirrors with lower static aberrations and higher dynamic than the standard devices.
We present a series of experimental results, and their interpretation,
connected to various aspects of the hydrodynamics of laser produced
plasmas. Experiments were performed using the Prague PALS iodine laser
working at 0.44 μm wavelength and irradiances up to a few
1014 W/cm2. By adopting large focal spots and
smoothed laser beams, the lateral energy transport and lateral expansion
have been avoided. Therefore we could reach a quasi one-dimensional regime
for which experimental results can be more easily and properly compared to
available analytical models.
The short-term polyamine response to inoculation, with
tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), of TMV-inoculated NN
(hypersensitive) and nn (susceptible) plants of Nicotiana
tabacum (L.) cv. Samsun was investigated. Free and
conjugated polyamine concentrations, putrescine biosynthesis,
evaluated through arginine decarboxylase (ADC)
and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activities, and putrescine
oxidation, via diamine oxidase (DAO) activity, were
analysed during the first 24 h from inoculation. Results were
compared with those of mock-inoculated control
plants. In NN TMV-inoculated plants undergoing the hypersensitive
response (HR), free putrescine and
spermidine concentrations had increased after 5 h compared with
controls; polyamine conjugates also tended to
increase compared with controls. In both virus- and mock-inoculated
plants, ADC and ODC activities generally
increased whereas DAO activity, which was present in controls, was
detectable only in traces in inoculated tissues.
In TMV-infected susceptible plants, free putrescine and spermidine
concentrations were lower at 5 h relative
to controls, as were polyamine conjugates. No differences were
revealed in ADC and ODC activities whereas DAO
activity was not detectable. These results further support the
hypothesis that polyamines are involved in the
response of tobacco to TMV and that, only a few hours after inoculation,
the response of hypersensitive plants is
distinct from that of susceptible ones.
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