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The Rapid ASKAP Continuum Survey (RACS) is the first large-area survey to be conducted with the full 36-antenna Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. RACS will provide a shallow model of the ASKAP sky that will aid the calibration of future deep ASKAP surveys. RACS will cover the whole sky visible from the ASKAP site in Western Australia and will cover the full ASKAP band of 700–1800 MHz. The RACS images are generally deeper than the existing NRAO VLA Sky Survey and Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey radio surveys and have better spatial resolution. All RACS survey products will be public, including radio images (with
15 arcsec resolution) and catalogues of about three million source components with spectral index and polarisation information. In this paper, we present a description of the RACS survey and the first data release of 903 images covering the sky south of declination
made over a 288-MHz band centred at 887.5 MHz.
Work in occupations with higher levels of occupational stress can bring mental health costs. Many older adults worldwide are continuing to work past traditional retirement age, raising the question whether older adults experience depression, anxiety, or burnout at the same or greater levels as younger workers, and whether there are differences by age in these levels over time.
Longitudinal survey of 1161 currently employed US clergy followed every 6–12 months for up to 66 months.
Depression was measured with the 8-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8). Anxiety was measured using the anxiety component of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Burnout symptoms were assessed using the three components of the Maslach Burnout Inventory: emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP), and sense of personal accomplishment (PA).
Older participants had lower scores of depression, anxiety, EE, and DP and higher levels of PA over time compared to younger adults. Levels of EE decreased for older working adults, while not significantly changing over time for those younger. DP symptoms decreased over time among those 55 years or older but increased among those 25–54 years.
Older working adults may have higher levels of resilience and be able to balance personal life with their occupation as well as may engage in certain behaviors that increase social support and, for clergy, spiritual well-being that may decrease stress in a way that allows these older adults to appear to tolerate working longer without poorer mental health outcomes.
We aimed to investigate the heterogeneity of seasonal suicide patterns among multiple geographically, demographically and socioeconomically diverse populations.
Weekly time-series data of suicide counts for 354 communities in 12 countries during 1986–2016 were analysed. Two-stage analysis was performed. In the first stage, a generalised linear model, including cyclic splines, was used to estimate seasonal patterns of suicide for each community. In the second stage, the community-specific seasonal patterns were combined for each country using meta-regression. In addition, the community-specific seasonal patterns were regressed onto community-level socioeconomic, demographic and environmental indicators using meta-regression.
We observed seasonal patterns in suicide, with the counts peaking in spring and declining to a trough in winter in most of the countries. However, the shape of seasonal patterns varied among countries from bimodal to unimodal seasonality. The amplitude of seasonal patterns (i.e. the peak/trough relative risk) also varied from 1.47 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.33–1.62) to 1.05 (95% CI: 1.01–1.1) among 12 countries. The subgroup difference in the seasonal pattern also varied over countries. In some countries, larger amplitude was shown for females and for the elderly population (≥65 years of age) than for males and for younger people, respectively. The subperiod difference also varied; some countries showed increasing seasonality while others showed a decrease or little change. Finally, the amplitude was larger for communities with colder climates, higher proportions of elderly people and lower unemployment rates (p-values < 0.05).
Despite the common features of a spring peak and a winter trough, seasonal suicide patterns were largely heterogeneous in shape, amplitude, subgroup differences and temporal changes among different populations, as influenced by climate, demographic and socioeconomic conditions. Our findings may help elucidate the underlying mechanisms of seasonal suicide patterns and aid in improving the design of population-specific suicide prevention programmes based on these patterns.
Multispectral imaging – the acquisition of spatially contiguous imaging data in a modest number (~3–16) of spectral bandpasses – has proven to be a powerful technique for augmenting panchromatic imaging observations on Mars focused on geologic and/or atmospheric context. Specifically, multispectral imaging using modern digital CCD photodetectors and narrowband filters in the 400–1100 nm wavelength region on the Mars Pathfinder, Mars Exploration Rover, Phoenix, and Mars Science Laboratory missions has provided new information on the composition and mineralogy of fine-grained regolith components (dust, soils, sand, spherules, coatings), rocky surface regions (cobbles, pebbles, boulders, outcrops, and fracture-filling veins), meteorites, and airborne dust and other aerosols. Here we review recent scientific results from Mars surface-based multispectral imaging investigations, including the ways that these observations have been used in concert with other kinds of measurements to enhance the overall scientific return from Mars surface missions.
How do planetary scientists analyze and interpret data from laboratory, telescopic, and spacecraft observations of planetary surfaces? What elements, minerals, and volatiles are found on the surfaces of our Solar System's planets, moons, asteroids, and comets? This comprehensive volume answers these topical questions by providing an overview of the theory and techniques of remote compositional analysis of planetary surfaces. Bringing together eminent researchers in Solar System exploration, it describes state-of-the-art results from spectroscopic, mineralogical, and geochemical techniques used to analyze the surfaces of planets, moons, and small bodies. The book introduces the methodology and theoretical background of each technique, and presents the latest advances in space exploration, telescopic and laboratory instrumentation, and major new work in theoretical studies. This engaging volume provides a comprehensive reference on planetary surface composition and mineralogy for advanced students, researchers, and professional scientists.
Little is known about the diet quality of preschool children in Canada. We adapted an established diet quality index for European preschool children to align with the Canadian context and applied the index to dietary data of 3-year-old children to assess patterns of diet quality.
Our diet quality index (DQI-C) consists of four components that align with Canada’s Food Guide (Vegetables and Fruit, Grain Products, Milk and Alternatives and Meat and Alternatives) and two components that account for less healthy intakes (Candy/Snacks, and Sugar-Sweetened Beverages (SSB)). The ratio between consumption v. recommended intakes is calculated for each component and summed to give a total score from 0 to 6.
The DQI-C was applied to FFQ data from 1260 3-year-old children.
Mean DQI-C was 3·69 (sd 0·6). Most children met recommendations for Vegetables and Fruit (73 %) and Meat and Alternatives (70 %); however, fewer met recommendations for Milk and Alternatives (38 %) and Grain Products (13 %). Children in the lowest quartile for DQI-C score consumed a mean of 82 g of Candy/Snacks and 193 g of SSB daily, whereas those in the highest quartile consumed 45 g/d and 17 g/d of Candy and Snacks and SSB, respectively.
This DQI-C score is useful for ranking Canadian preschool children according to their overall diet quality. There is room for improvement for consumptions of Grain Products, Meat and Alternatives, Candy/Snacks and SSB, which could be a target for initiatives to improve diet quality of preschool children in Canada.
This article addresses three questions. First, what is the effect on the civil law in Asia of young (and old) academics adopting English, the language of the common law, as a second language – rather than a civil law language, either a Continental European language (French, German etc), or another Asian civil law language (Japanese, Chinese etc)? Second, what is the effect on the civil law of civil law jurists pursuing their graduate studies not only in English but also in common law jurisdictions, rather than in civil law jurisdictions and returning home to become academics or practicing lawyers in civil law jurisdictions? Finally, since English is the lingua franca of civil law jurists in Asia, how can we adapt English to the civil law so as to make English one of our civil law languages?
Singapore aims to be a legal service hub for its region and, therefore, aims to provide legal services to the civil law countries of Southeast and East Asia. One would therefore think that the teaching of at least the rudiments of the civil law (the law of obligations – contracts, delictual liability (tort), quasi-contracts – and property) would be a high priority. However, for all its talk of being ‘Asia's Global Law School’, the NUS Law School does not train its students to handle work from, or in, most of this region. The students are simply not required to learn the very foundations of the civil law tradition. The requirement that they take a course entitled ‘Legal Systems of Asia’ does not ensure that they know the very basics of the civil law. The fact that they must take a course on the law of a civil law country does not ensure that they learn about the civil law. This article suggests how the NUS Law School can make sure that it prepares its students, or at least some of its students, for regional work that includes civil law work.
Indonesia is a fascinating amalgam of ethnicities, languages, cultures, and religions, united by history, by a common national language, by political will and sometimes by sheer force, and spread over thousands of separate, distinct, and often distant islands. That such a country would have a high degree of regional autonomy would seem to make sense but surprisingly the regions in Indonesia until recently did not have much autonomy and were administered mainly by the central government. This led to a lot of resentment towards the centre and particularly towards Java and the Javanese who dominate in politics and in the central government.
Addressing a call for more regional autonomy, the Habibie government passed new laws that promised the broadest autonomy to the regions and the Wahid government adopted regulations under the new laws. The laws and regulations came into force on 1 January 2001. This decentralization has been referred to by some as the “Big Bang” — Indonesia moved from a government structure that was highly centralized to one of the most decentralized in the world (at least on paper) and did so in about 27 months from the People's Consultative Assembly (MPR) decree opening up the regional governance reform in October 19981 until the coming into force of the laws on 1 January 2001. Many believe that no country has ever decentralized so much so suddenly.
This article will look at the provisions of the new regional autonomy laws. It will, in particular, examine the political context that led to their adoption, their contents including their shortcomings, the many difficult tasks faced during the implementation of the laws over the past two years, and the possibility of amending the laws. It will then look very briefly at the separate autonomy laws adopted for special regions.
I have elsewhere made a detailed legal analysis of the laws and regulations just before their coming into force and also written on the legal consequences of the regional autonomy laws on regional minorities in Indonesia. Jurists should refer to these other articles for a more detailed legal analysis. The purpose of this article will be to explain some of the legal difficulties generated by the law to non-lawyers and to give a more general overview of the law and its early implementation over the last two years — though still from a jurist's point of view.