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Background: Clinical guidelines recommend MAP maintenance at 85-90 mmHg to optimize spinal cord perfusion post-SCI. Recently, there has been increased interest in spinal cord perfusion pressure as a surrogate marker for spinal cord blood flow. The study aims to determine the congruency of subdural and intramedullary spinal cord pressure measurements at the site of SCI, both rostral and caudal to the epicenter of injury. Methods: Seven Yucatan pigs underwent a T5 to L1 laminectomy with intramedullary (IM) and subdural (SD) pressure sensors placed 2 mm rostral and 2 mm caudal to the epicenter of SCI. A T10 contusion SCI was performed followed by an 8-hour period of monitoring. Axial ultrasound images were captured at the epicenter of injury pre-SCI, post-SCI, and hourly thereafter. Results: Pigs with pre-SCI cord to dural sac ratio (CDSR) of >0.8 exhibited greater occlusion of the subdural space post-SCI with a positive correlation between IM and SD pressure rostral to the injury and a negative correlation caudal to the epicenter. Pigs with pre-SCI CDSR <0.8 exhibited no correlation between IM and SD pressure. Conclusions: Congruency of IM and SD pressure is dependent on compartmentalization of the spinal cord occurring secondary to swelling that occludes the subdural space.
Bipolar Disorder is a devastating disease with a genetic heritability. An orchestra of around 500 gene variants is leading to vulnerability.
One interesting candidate gene group are the socalled CLOCK GENES. The molecular 24h clock has several CLOCK GENES and the last gene ARNTL encodes for an activator of MAOA transcription and leads therefore to changes in neurotransmitter levels.
Genotyping of 150 paricipants with Bipolar Disorder and 78 healthy controls with the Illumina GWAS chip Omniexpress 1.1. Hypothesis driven extraction of ARNTL SNPs with the software PLINK. Statistical analysis with Chi square test with SPSS.
Patients with Bipolar Disorder differ significantly in ARNTL genotypes compared to healthy controls. Details are presented during the poster session.
Circadian rhythms seem to play an important pathogenetic mechanism in Bipolar Disorder.
Protocols for conducting in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reactions using an environmental TEM with dry gases have been well established. However, many important reactions that are relevant to catalysis or high-temperature oxidation occur at atmospheric pressure and are influenced by the presence of water vapor. These experiments necessitate using a closed-cell gas reaction TEM holder. We have developed protocols for introducing and controlling water vapor concentrations in experimental gases from 2% at a full atmosphere to 100% at ~17 Torr, while measuring the gas composition using a residual gas analyzer (RGA) on the return side of the in situ gas reactor holder. Initially, as a model system, cube-shaped MgO crystals were used to help develop the protocols for handling the water vapor injection process and confirming that we could successfully inject water vapor into the gas cell. The interaction of water vapor with MgO triggered surface morphological and chemical changes as a result of the formation of Mg(OH)2, later validated with mass spectra obtained with our RGA system with and without water vapor. Integrating an RGA with an in situ scanning/TEM closed-cell gas reaction system can thus provide critical measurements correlating gas composition with dynamic surface restructuring of materials during reactions.
Aberration-corrected STEM has become a standard analytical technique in the field of nanoscience. As “designer materials” have become more in demand in academic circles, verification of a desired product makes atomic-resolutionanalysis mandatory. Industry currently faces the same trend where tailor-made materials are customized for a given application. Here we show several examples where quantifiable atomic-scale manipulation of nanomaterials can have a dramatic impact on structure and, by extension, functionality.