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Some magnetic early B-type stars display Hα emission originating in their Centrifugal Magnetospheres (CMs). To determine the rotational and magnetic properties necessary for the onset of emission, we analyzed a large spectropolarimetric dataset for a sample of 51 B5-B0 magnetic stars. New rotational periods were found for 15 stars. We determined physical parameters, dipolar magnetic field strengths, magnetospheric parameters, and magnetic braking timescales. Hα-bright stars are more rapidly rotating, more strongly magnetized, and younger than the overall population. We use the high sensitivity of magnetic braking to the mass-loss rate to test the predictions of Vink et al. (2001) and Krtička (2014) by comparing ages t to maximum spindown ages tS, max. For stars with M* < 10 M⊙ this comparison favours the Krtička recipe. For the most massive stars, both prescriptions yield t ≪ tS, max, a discrepancy which is difficult to explain via incorrect mass-loss rates alone.
Observations of stable mainly dipolar magnetic fields at the surface of ~7% of single hot stars indicate that these fields are of fossil origin, i.e. they descend from the seed field in the molecular clouds from which the stars were formed. The recent results confirm this theory. First, theoretical work and numerical simulations confirm that the properties of the observed fields correspond to those expected from fossil fields. They also showed that rapid rotation does not modify the surface dipolar magnetic configurations, but hinders the stability of fossil fields. This explains the lack of correlation between the magnetic field properties and stellar properties in massive stars. It may also explain the lack of detections of magnetic fields in Be stars, which rotate close to their break-up velocity. In addition, observations by the BinaMIcS collaboration of hot stars in binary systems show that the fraction of those hosting detectable magnetic fields is much smaller than for single hot stars. This could be related to results obtained in simulations of massive star formation, which show that the stronger the magnetic field in the original molecular cloud, the more difficult it is to fragment massive cores to form several stars. Therefore, more and more arguments support the fossil field theory.
We review the different theoretical challenges concerning magnetism in interacting binary or multiple stars that will be studied in the BinaMIcS (Binarity and Magnetic Interactions in various classes of Stars) project during the corresponding spectropolarimetric Large Programs at CFHT and TBL. We describe how completely new and innovative topics will be studied with BinaMIcS such as the complex interactions between tidal flows and stellar magnetic fields, the MHD star-star interactions, and the role of stellar magnetism in stellar formation and vice versa. This will strongly modify our vision of the evolution of interacting binary and multiple stars.
Strong, kilo-Gauss, magnetic fields are required to explain a range of observational properties in young, accreting pre-main sequence (PMS) systems. We review the techniques used to detect magnetic fields in PMS stars. Key results from a long running campaign aimed at characterising the large scale magnetic fields in accreting T Tauri stars are presented. Maps of surface magnetic flux in these systems can be used to build 3-D models exploring the role of magnetic fields and the efficiency with which magnetic fields can channel accretion from circumstellar disks on to young stars. Long-term variability in T Tauri star magnetic fields strongly point to a dynamo origin of the magnetic fields. Studies are underway to quantify how changes in magnetic fields affect their accretion properties. We also present the first results from a new programme that investigates the evolution of magnetic fields in intermediate mass (1.5–3M⊙) pre-main sequence stars as they evolve from being convective T Tauri stars to fully radiative Herbig AeBe stars.
The Magnetism in Massive Stars (MiMeS) Project is a consensus collaboration among many of the foremost international researchers of the physics of hot, massive stars, with the basic aim of understanding the origin, evolution and impact of magnetic fields in these objects. At the time of writing, MiMeS Large Programs have acquired over 950 high-resolution polarised spectra of about 150 individual stars with spectral types from B5-O4, discovering new magnetic fields in a dozen hot, massive stars. The quality of this spectral and magnetic matériel is very high, and the Collaboration is keen to connect with colleagues capable of exploiting the data in new or unforeseen ways. In this paper we review the structure of the MiMeS observing programs and report the status of observations, data modeling and development of related theory.
The Herbig Ae/Be stars are the high-mass counterparts of the T Tauri stars, and are therefore considered as the pre-main sequence progenitors of the A/B stars. These stars are still contracting towards the main sequence, and are surrounded by dust and gas, remnants of their parental molecular cloud. In order to understand the formation processes at high mass, as well as the magnetic and rotation properties of the MS A/B stars, it is fundamental to understand the structure of the circumstellar matter of the Herbig Ae/Be stars, as well as the interaction of these PMS stars with their close environment. In this talk I will review our current knowledge about the properties of the circumstellar environment of the Herbig Ae/Be stars as well as the possible physical processes at the origin of their observed activities.
We present the results of a recent survey of cool, late-type supergiants - the descendants of massive O- and B-type stars - that has systematically detected magnetic fields in these stars using spectropolarimetric observations obtained with ESPaDOnS at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Our observations reveal detectable, often complex, Stokes V Zeeman signatures in Least-Squares Deconvolved mean line profiles in a significant fraction of the observed sample of ~30 stars.
In some massive stars, magnetic fields are thought to confine the outflowing radiatively-driven wind. Although theoretical models and MHD simulations are able to illustrate the dynamics of such a magnetized wind, the impact of this wind-field interaction on the observable properties of a magnetic star - X-ray emission, photometric and spectral variability - is still unclear. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between magnetism, stellar winds and X-ray emission of OB stars, by providing empirical observations and confronting theory. In conjunction with the COUP survey of the Orion Nebula Cluster, we carried out spectropolarimatric ESPaDOnS observations to determine the magnetic properties of massive OB stars of this cluster.
It is now well-known that the surface magnetic fields observed in cool, lower-mass stars on the main sequence (MS) are generated by dynamos operating in their convective envelopes. However, higher-mass stars (above 1.5 M⊙) pass their MS lives with a small convective core and a largely radiative envelope. Remarkably, notwithstanding the absence of energetically-important envelope convection, we observe very strong (from 300 G to 30 kG) and organised (mainly dipolar) magnetic fields in a few percent of the A and B-type stars on the MS, the origin of which is not well understood. In this poster we propose that these magnetic fields could be of fossil origin, and we present very strong observational results in favour of this proposal.
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