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Nutrition during pregnancy can impact on the susceptibility of the offspring to CVD. Postnatal consumption of trans-fatty acids (TFA), associated with partially hydrogenated vegetable oil (PHVO), increases the risk of atherosclerosis, whereas evidence for those TFA associated with ruminant-derived dairy products and meat remain equivocal. In this study, we investigate the impact of maternal consumption of dietary PHVO (P) and ruminant milk fat (R) on the development of atherosclerosis in their offspring, using the transgenic apoE*3 Leiden mouse. Dams were fed either chow (C) or one of three high-fat diets: a diet reflecting the SFA content of a ‘Western’ diet (W) or one enriched with either P or R. Diets were fed during either pregnancy alone or pregnancy and lactation. Weaned offspring were then transferred to an atherogenic diet for 12 weeks. Atherosclerosis was assessed as lipid staining in cross-sections of the aorta. There was a significant effect of maternal diet during pregnancy on development of atherosclerosis (P=0·013) in the offspring with those born of mothers fed R or P during pregnancy displaying smaller lesions that those fed C or W. This was not associated with changes in total or lipoprotein cholesterol. Continuing to feed P during lactation increased atherosclerosis compared with that seen in offspring of dams fed P only during pregnancy (P<0·001). No such effect was seen in those from mothers fed R (P=0·596) or W (P=901). We conclude that dietary TFA have differing effects on cardiovascular risk at different stages of the lifecycle.
Radio-loud AGN play an important rôle in galaxy evolution. We need to understand their properties, and the processes that affect their behaviour in order to model galaxy formation and development. We here present preliminary results of an investigation into the cluster environments of radio galaxies. We have found evidence of a strong correlation between radio luminosity and environment richness for low excitation radio galaxies, and no evidence of evolution of the environment with redshift. Conversely, for high excitation radio galaxies, we found no correlation with environment richness, and tentative evidence of evolution of the cluster environment.
Electromigration measurements of dual-damascene VLSI copper interconnect with sputtered TiN barrier was performed to measure both long-line (Jmax) performance and EM threshold (JLmax). Wafer-level stress of via chains with various segment lengths was combined with a statistical efficient experiment design to explore various conditions with minimum sample size. Resistance saturation was observed with exponential time constant corresponding to vacancy diffusivity. Time to opens failure by resistance increase follows Black's equation with current exponent n=1.90 and activation energy Ea=0.94 eV. Thermal gradients due to high current stress were characterized and accounted-for in acceleration models.
We describe preliminary results from our study of multi-scale structures in Centaurus A (NGC 5128) obtained using the Chandra X-ray Observatory HRC-I observations. The high-angular resolution Chandra images reveal X-ray multi-scale structures in this object with unprecedented detail and clarity. The region surrounding the Cen A nucleus, believed to be associated with a supermassive black hole, shows structures on arcsecond scales clearly resolved from the central source.
Although heavily affected by war, Croatia has undertaken fundamental macroeconomic reforms since achieving independence in 1991. High inflation was brought under control in late 1993 by an exchange-rate-based stabilization program, and inflation has been kept to an average annual level of 1.2 percent in the three years since stabilization. This is the lowest level among transition countries (Figure 6.1). Reform of monetary instruments, currentaccount convertibility, and fiscal consolidation were part of the stabilization effort. However, imperfect financial markets faced strong capital inflows. The associated current-account deficit complicates maintenance of stabilization in the long run.
Competitive forces are at work to address the shortcomings of the financial system, but each source of competition has its own limitations. Entry into Croatian banking has been extensive, but most of these new banks are still quite small. Bank rehabilitation has been progressing slowly and lagged behind macroeconomic stabilization. Foreign banks have hesitated to enter the Croatian market, in part due to local and regional security risk.
Croatia has continued to experience a very high interest rate spread between average bank deposit and lending rates (about 20% on average) nearly three years after reducing inflation to no more than industrial country levels. (See Figure 6.2.) The purpose of this chapter is to analyze recent Croatian experience regarding the evolving structure of the banking system with a particular focus on the influence of late bank restructuring and weak competition on interest rates. We also try to establish a link between microeconomic structural considerations, and macroeconomic monetary considerations.